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INCREASING STUDENT LEARNING and REDUCING INSTRUCTIONAL COSTS: The Case for Redesign

INCREASING STUDENT LEARNING and REDUCING INSTRUCTIONAL COSTS: The Case for Redesign

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INCREASING STUDENT LEARNING and REDUCING INSTRUCTIONAL COSTS: The Case for Redesign

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  1. INCREASING STUDENT LEARNING and REDUCING INSTRUCTIONAL COSTS: The Case for Redesign

  2. TODAY’S DISCUSSION Overview of the Methodology and Findings of the Successful Redesign Projects Examples from Successful Institutions

  3. Established in 1999 as a university Center at RPI funded by the Pew Charitable Trusts Became an independent non-profit organization in 2003 Mission: help colleges and universities learn how to use technology to improve student learning outcomes and reduce their instructional costs

  4. TRADITIONAL INSTRUCTION Seminars Lectures

  5. “BOLT-ON” INSTRUCTION

  6. WHAT’S WRONG WITH THE LECTURE? • Treats all students as if they are the same • Ineffective in engaging students • Inadequate individual assistance • Poor attendance and success rates • Students fail to retain learning

  7. WHAT’S WRONG WITH MULTIPLE SECTIONS? In theory: greater interaction In practice: large class size In practice: dominated by the same presentation techniques Lack of coordination Inconsistent outcomes

  8. WHAT DOES NCAT MEAN BY COURSE REDESIGN? Course redesign is the process of redesigning whole courses (rather than individual classes or sections) to achieve better learning outcomes at a lower cost by taking advantage of the capabilities of information technology.

  9. PROGRAM IN COURSE REDESIGN To encourage colleges and universities to redesign their approaches to instruction using technology to achieve cost savings as well as quality enhancements. 50,000 students 30 projects

  10. SUMMARY OF RESULTS 25 of the original 30 showed improvement; 5 showed equal learning 24 measured retention; 18 showed improvement All 30 showed cost reduction Results in subsequent national and state and system programs have continued to show comparable results

  11. TAKING COURSE REDESIGN TO SCALE • The Roadmap to Redesign (R2R) 2003 – 2006 (20 institutions) • Colleagues Committed to Redesign (C2R) 2006 - 2009 (60 institutions) • Programs with Systems and States 2006 – present (~80 institutions) • The Redesign Alliance 2006 – present (70+ institutions) • Changing the Equation 2009 – 2012 (34 institutions)

  12. QUANTITATIVE Mathematics Developmental Math Pre-calculus Math College Algebra Discrete Math Introductory Algebra Elementary Algebra Beginning Algebra Intermediate Algebra Linear Algebra Statistics Business Statistics Introductory Statistics Elementary Statistics Economic Statistics Computing Computer Programming Information Technology Concepts Computer Literacy Information Literacy Tools for the Information Age

  13. SCIENCE Anatomy and Physiology Astronomy Biology Ethnobotany Chemistry Geology SOCIAL SCIENCE American Government Macro and Microeconomics Psychology Sociology Urban Affairs

  14. HUMANITIES Developmental Reading Developmental Writing English Composition Communication Studies Understanding the Visual and Performing Arts History of Western Civilization Great Ideas in Western Music Spanish World Literature British Literature Women and Gender Studies PROFESSIONAL Elementary Education Education: The Curriculum Engineering Organizational Behavior Public Speaking Accounting Nursing Nutrition

  15. NCAT METHODOLOGY:Relevance and Utility • Discipline: math & literature • Age: traditional & working adults • Institution: small & large • Location: on-campus & at a distance • Redesign: current & new courses • Level: introductory & advanced

  16. WHY REDESIGN?Have a high impact! Consider • High drop-failure-withdrawal rates • Student performance in subsequent courses • Students on waiting lists • Student complaints • Other departmental complaints • Lack of consistency in multiple sections • Difficulty finding qualified adjuncts

  17. WHY INSTITUTIONAL TEAMS? • Faculty experts • Administrators • Technology professionals • Assessment experts

  18. WHAT DO THE FACULTY SAY? “It’s the best experience I’ve ever had in a classroom.” “The quality of my worklife has changed immeasurably for the better.” “It’s a lot of work during the transition--but it’s worth it.”

  19. REDESIGN MODELS Supplemental – Add to the current structure and/or change the content Replacement – Blend face-to-face with online activities Emporium – Move all classes to a lab setting Fully online – Conduct all (most) learning activities online Buffet – Mix and match according to student preferences Linked Workshop – JIT workshops linked to a college level course

  20. REDESIGN CHARACTERISTICS Redesign the whole course—not just a single class Emphasize active learning—greater student engagement with the material and with one another Rely heavily on readily available interactive software—used independently and in teams Mastery learning—not self-paced Increase on-demand, individualized assistance Automate only those course components that can benefit from automation—e.g., homework, quizzes, exams Replace single mode instruction with differentiated personnel strategies Technology enables good pedagogy with large #s of students.

  21. SUPPLEMENTAL MODEL • Maintain the basic current structure • Change the content so that more is available on line • Change interaction so that students are interacting more with the material • Change the use of the time to reduce or eliminate lecturing and increase student interaction

  22. INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGYNorthern Arizona University • 2000/year foundational, survey-style class • 8-11 uncoordinated sections annually • Issues: • Engagement. 63% study < 2 hours per week • Student learning and achievement • Enrollment pressures and cost. $62/student • Consistency. Non-permanent staff, divergent grade distributions • Faculty perception, participation

  23. INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGYNorthern Arizona University • Redesigned Course • Team taught F2F section with substantial online supplementation • 400 students/section, back to back scheduling, coordination • GTA team approach with “early intervention specialist” • Student response system • Required, repeatable online quizzes

  24. INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGYNorthern Arizona University • Web assignments - 4 per semester • Guided exploration and written reflection on web-based surveys and other activities • Pilot research suggested these effectively complement material • Email contact with struggling students • Students in redesigned sections scored better on exams • Costs reduced $63 -> $42 per student • 90% taught by FT faculty

  25. REPLACEMENT MODEL • Blend face-to-face with online activities • Determine exactly what activities required face-to-face and reduce the amount of time to focus only on those activities in class • Provide 24/7 online interactive learning materials and resources • Include online self-assessment activities with immediate feedback

  26. INTRODUCTORY PSYCHOLOGYUniversity of Maryland Baltimore County • Replacement Model •  lecture time; shift to discussion • Integrated clicker questions to  interactivity • Created common multiple choice exams • Added weekly small group activities • Assigned 1½ GTAs for student support • Sequenced content for more engaging start • Peer Mentors for class activities, tutoring, & exam prep • Targeted 20% failure rate.

  27. INTRODUCTORY PSYCHOLOGYOutcomes •  the number of sections required each semester and  class size. •  withdrawal rates; retaining students. •  Mean scores on unit exams •  the need for two faculty each year; can offer another upper level course each term • Freed up University classroom space •  the need for graduate teaching assistants from 2 grad students to 1 grad student • Leveraged existing resources to fund Peer Mentors • Cost per student $65 to $58

  28. DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGYUniversity of Maryland Baltimore County • Replacement Model:  class meeting to 4 times/semester; shift to Unit discussion sessions • Created faculty agreed upon final exam •  use of online essays and weekly chapter exams • Weekly discussion board entries • Videos with online questions after viewing • Assigned 1 GTAs for database management and student support • Targeted  course drift,  technology use, student enrollment

  29. DEVELOPMENAL PSYCHOLOGYOutcomes • Course grade distributions maintained • Uniform course content w/ departmental agreement • Failure rate maintained at 5% • number of students enrolled •  writing assignments •  two faculty a year teaching the course • Freed up classroom space for additional courses •  to ½ GTA • Cost per student $158 to $74 per student

  30. Challenges for Both Redesigns Faculty • Willingness to learn and deal with technology • Agreement on common content and measures • Accuracy of online quizzes and technology glitches • Roles of Graduate TA and Undergraduate Peer Mentors • Pedagogy change and classroom technology • Routine updates of technology and software Students • Freshman adjustment curve • Preparedness for new pedagogy using adult learning principles • Problem-solving technology issues • Working in groups; used to individual performance • Routine updates of technology and software

  31. GENERAL PSYCHOLOGYFrostburg State University Undergraduate Learning Assistants • “Field Experience” course for top students • Leadership in Psychology Certificate Program • Supplemental Instructor (SI) • Receive additional training based on national SI program • Interning as a ULA • Research experience included

  32. BUFFET MODEL • Assess each student’s knowledge/skill level and preferred learning style • Provide an array of high-quality, interactive learning materials and activities • Develop individualized study plans • Built in continuous assessment to provide instantaneous feedback • Offer appropriate, varied human interaction when needed

  33. GENERAL PSYCHOLOGY Chattanooga State CC Traditional Classes: • total enrollment approximately 1500 per year • 7 on-ground sections main campus (100 students per section) • 3 on-ground sections at satellite campuses (40-50 students per section) • 5 online sections (30-40 students per section) • Contact Hours: • each on-ground section meets 2 hours per week • 2 optional one-hour help sessions per week • Faculty: • 4 full-time faculty (one serves as department chair) • 5 adjunct instructors

  34. GENERAL PSYCHOLOGYChattanooga State CC Redesigned Course • Improved student learning – pre and post test data verification • Online and on-ground students have the same materials and opportunities • Faculty available for all students (on-ground and on-line) • Increased learner-focused curriculum • One website for all on-ground students – maximum peer interaction and interactive mastery learning opportunities

  35. GENERAL PSYCHOLOGYChattanooga State CC • Flexible scheduling • Eliminate drop/add confusion - students can enroll in any open section and attend any section with a seat as many times as they wish • “Now, I know. I need the lecture.” – can begin attending any or all lectures • “Job change. Can’t come to class.” or “My baby is due next week.” - not a problem just complete everything online without benefit of lecture • “Wow, if I’m sick one day or my car breaks down, I can take the exam on one of the other days it is offered.”

  36. FACULTY BENEFITS Increased opportunity to work directly with students who need help Reduced grading Technology does the tracking and monitoring More practice and interaction for students without faculty effort Ability to try different approaches to meet different student needs Opportunity for continuous improvement of materials and approaches

  37. A STREAMLINED REDESIGN METHODOLOGY“A Menu of Redesign Options” Six Models for Course Redesign Five Principles of Successful Course Redesign Cost Reduction Strategies Course Planning Tool Course Structure Form Four Models for Assessing Student Learning Five Critical Implementation Issues Planning Checklist

  38. INCREASING STUENT LEARNING and REDUCING INSTRUCTIONAL COSTS: The Case for Redesign Carolyn Jarmon, Ph.D. cjarmon@theNCAT.org www.theNCAT.org

  39. QUESTIONS?