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  1. How to Use This Presentation • To View the presentation as a slideshow with effects select “View” on the menu bar and click on “Slide Show.” • To advance through the presentation, click the right-arrow key or the space bar. • From the resources slide, click on any resource to see a presentation for that resource. • From the Chapter menu screen click on any lesson to go directly to that lesson’s presentation. • You may exit the slide show at any time by pressing the Esc key.

  2. Resources Lesson Starters Chapter Presentation Transparencies Standardized Test Prep Visual Concepts

  3. Acids and Bases Chapter 14 Table of Contents Section 1Properties of Acids and Bases Section 2Acid-Base Theories Section 3Acid-Base Reactions

  4. Section1 Properties of Acids and Bases Chapter 14 Lesson Starter The solutions in the beakers are different because they have a different pH. One beaker contains a basic solution and the other beaker contains an acidic solution

  5. Section3 Acid-Base Reactions Chapter 14 Lesson Starter What is the meaning of the word neutralization. How is the word used in everyday life? How is it likely to apply to acids and bases?

  6. Section3 Acid-Base Reactions Chapter 14 Objectives Describe a conjugate acid, a conjugate base, and an amphoteric compound. Explain the process of neutralization. Defineacid rain, give examples of compounds that can cause acid rain, and describe effects of acid rain.

  7. Section3 Acid-Base Reactions Chapter 14 Conjugate Acids and Bases The species that remains after a Brønsted-Lowry acid has given up a proton is the conjugate base of that acid. acid conjugate base

  8. Section3 Acid-Base Reactions Chapter 14 Conjugate Acids and Bases, continued Brønsted-Lowry acid-base reactions involve two acid-base pairs, known a conjugate acid-base pairs. acid1base2 base1acid2

  9. Section3 Acid-Base Reactions Chapter 14 Neutralization Reactions

  10. Section3 Acid-Base Reactions Chapter 14 Conjugate Acids and Bases, continued Strength of Conjugate Acids and Bases • The stronger an acid is, the weaker its conjugate base • The stronger a base is, the weaker its conjugate acid strong acid base acid weak base

  11. Section3 Acid-Base Reactions Chapter 14 Conjugate Acids and Bases, continued Strength of Conjugate Acids and Bases, continued Proton transfer reactions favor the production of the weaker acid and the weaker base. stronger acid stronger base weaker acid weaker base • The reaction to the right is more favorable weaker acid weaker base stronger acid stronger base • The reaction to the left is more favorable

  12. Visual Concepts Chapter 14 Conjugated Acids and Bases Click below to watch the Visual Concept. Visual Concept

  13. Section3 Acid-Base Reactions Chapter 14 Relative Strengths of Acids and Bases Relative Strengths of Acids and Bases

  14. Section3 Acid-Base Reactions Chapter 14 Amphoteric Compounds • Any species that can react as either an acid or a base is described asamphoteric. • example:water • water can act as a base acid1 base2 acid2 base1 • water can act as an acid base1 acid2 acid1 base2

  15. Section3 Acid-Base Reactions Chapter 14 Amphoteric Compounds, continued –OH in a Molecule The covalently bonded IOH group in an acid is referred to as ahydroxyl group. Molecular compounds containing —OH groups can be acidic or amphoteric. The behavior of a compound is affected by the number of oxygen atoms bonded to the atom connected to the —OH group.

  16. Section3 Acid-Base Reactions Chapter 14 Oxyacids of Chlorine

  17. Visual Concepts Chapter 14 Amphoterism Click below to watch the Visual Concept. Visual Concept

  18. Section3 Acid-Base Reactions Chapter 14 Neutralization Reactions Strong Acid-Strong Base Neutralization In aqueous solutions,neutralizationis the reaction of hydronium ions and hydroxide ions to form water molecules. Asalt is an ionic compound composed of a cation from a base and an anion from an acid.

  19. Visual Concepts Chapter 14 Neutralization Reaction Click below to watch the Visual Concept. Visual Concept

  20. Section3 Acid-Base Reactions Chapter 14 Acid Rain NO, NO2, CO2, SO2, and SO3 gases from industrial processes can dissolve in atmospheric water to produce acidic solutions. example: Very acidic rain is known asacid rain. Acid rain can erode statues and affect ecosystems.

  21. Visual Concepts Chapter 14 Acid Precipitation

  22. Visual Concepts Chapter 14 Chemical Weathering Click below to watch the Visual Concept. Visual Concept

  23. End of Chapter 14 Show

  24. Standardized Test Preparation Chapter 14 Multiple Choice • 1. Which of the following is not a characteristic of • an acid? • A.An acid changes the color of an indicator. • B.An acid has a bitter taste. • C.An acid ionizes in water. • D.An acid produces hydronium ions in water.

  25. Standardized Test Preparation Chapter 14 Multiple Choice • 1. Which of the following is not a characteristic of • an acid? • A.An acid changes the color of an indicator. • B. An acid has a bitter taste. • C.An acid ionizes in water. • D.An acid produces hydronium ions in water.

  26. Standardized Test Preparation Chapter 14 Multiple Choice • 2. When an acid reacts with an active metal, • A.the hydronium ion concentration increases. • B.the metal forms anions. • C.hydrogen gas is produced. • D.carbon dioxide gas is produced.

  27. Standardized Test Preparation Chapter 14 Multiple Choice • 2. When an acid reacts with an active metal, • A.the hydronium ion concentration increases. • B.the metal forms anions. • C. hydrogen gas is produced. • D.carbon dioxide gas is produced.

  28. Standardized Test Preparation Chapter 14 Multiple Choice • 3. Which of the following is a Brønsted-Lowry base? • A. an electron pair donor • B. an electron pair acceptor • C. a proton donor • D. a proton acceptor

  29. Standardized Test Preparation Chapter 14 Multiple Choice • 3. Which of the following is a Brønsted-Lowry base? • A. an electron pair donor • B. an electron pair acceptor • C. a proton donor • D. a proton acceptor

  30. Standardized Test Preparation Chapter 14 Multiple Choice • 4. Which acid is the most commonly produced industrial chemical? • A. hydrochloric acid • B. acetic acid • C. nitric acid • D. sulfuric acid

  31. Standardized Test Preparation Chapter 14 Multiple Choice • 4. Which acid is the most commonly produced industrial chemical? • A. hydrochloric acid • B. acetic acid • C. nitric acid • D. sulfuric acid

  32. Standardized Test Preparation Chapter 14 Multiple Choice • 5. Which of the following is a conjugate pair? • A. H+ and OH • B. • C. HCl and Cl • D.

  33. Standardized Test Preparation Chapter 14 Multiple Choice • 5. Which of the following is a conjugate pair? • A. H+ and OH • B. • C. HCl and Cl • D.

  34. Standardized Test Preparation Chapter 14 Multiple Choice • 6. What is the formula for acetic acid? • A. CH3COOH • B. HNO3 • C. HClO4 • D. HCN

  35. Standardized Test Preparation Chapter 14 Multiple Choice • 6. What is the formula for acetic acid? • A. CH3COOH • B. HNO3 • C. HClO4 • D. HCN

  36. Standardized Test Preparation Chapter 14 Multiple Choice • 7. Which of the following species is the conjugate acid of another species in the list? • A. • B. H3PO4 • C. H2O • D.

  37. Standardized Test Preparation Chapter 14 Multiple Choice • 7. Which of the following species is the conjugate acid of another species in the list? • A. • B. H3PO4 • C. H2O • D.

  38. Standardized Test Preparation Chapter 14 Multiple Choice • 8. Identify the salt that forms when a solution of H2SO4 is titrated with a solution of Ca(OH)2. • A. calcium sulfate • B. calcium hydroxide • C. calcium oxide • D. calcium phosphate

  39. Standardized Test Preparation Chapter 14 Multiple Choice • 8. Identify the salt that forms when a solution of H2SO4 is titrated with a solution of Ca(OH)2. • A. calcium sulfate • B. calcium hydroxide • C. calcium oxide • D. calcium phosphate

  40. Standardized Test Preparation Chapter 14 Multiple Choice • 9. Which of the following statements is true for the reaction below? • A. HF is the base. • B. • C.F− is the conjugate base. • D.

  41. Standardized Test Preparation Chapter 14 Multiple Choice • 9. Which of the following statements is true for the reaction below? • A. HF is the base. • B. • C.F− is the conjugate base. • D.

  42. Standardized Test Preparation Chapter 14 Short Answer • 10. How does a strong acid differ from a weak acid? Give • one example of each.

  43. Standardized Test Preparation Chapter 14 Short Answer • 10. How does a strong acid differ from a weak acid? Give • one example of each. • Answer:A strong acid is 100% ionized; a weak acid is • less than 100% ionized. Possible strong acids are HCl, • HI, HBr, HNO3, H2SO4, HClO4, and HClO3. With very • few exceptions, any other acid will be a weak acid.

  44. Standardized Test Preparation Chapter 14 Short Answer • 11. Identify the conjugate acid-base pairs in the following • reaction:

  45. Standardized Test Preparation Chapter 14 Short Answer • 11. Identify the conjugate acid-base pairs in the following • reaction: • Answer:HClO2(aq) acid1, • NH3(aq) base2,

  46. Standardized Test Preparation Chapter 14 Extended Response • 12. Phosphoric acid, H3PO4, has three hydrogen atoms and is classified as a triprotic acid. Acetic acid, CH3COOH, has four hydrogen atoms and is classified as a monoprotic acid. Explain the difference, and justify your explanation by drawing the Lewis structure for both acids.

  47. Standardized Test Preparation Chapter 14 Extended Response • 12. Phosphoric acid, H3PO4, has three hydrogen atoms and is classified as a triprotic acid. Acetic acid, CH3COOH, has four hydrogen atoms and is classified as a monoprotic acid. Explain the difference, and justify your explanation by drawing the Lewis structure for both acids. • Answer:Each of the H atoms in phosphoric acid is attached to an oxygen atom and can ionize. Only one of the H atoms in acetic acid is attached to an oxygen atom and can be ionized. The three H atoms bonded to C do not ionize; thus, acetic acid is a monoprotic acid.

  48. Standardized Test Preparation Chapter 14 Extended Response • 12. Phosphoric acid, H3PO4, has three hydrogen atoms and is classified as a triprotic acid. Acetic acid, CH3COOH, has four hydrogen atoms and is classified as a monoprotic acid. Explain the difference, and justify your explanation by drawing the Lewis structure for both acids. • Answer continued:

  49. Standardized Test Preparation Chapter 14 Extended Response • 13. Write the full equation, ionic equation, and net ionic equation for the neutralization reaction between ammonia and sulfuric acid. Identify the spectator ion(s).

  50. Standardized Test Preparation Chapter 14 Extended Response • 13. Write the full equation, ionic equation, and net ionic equation for the neutralization reaction between ammonia and sulfuric acid. Identify the spectator ion(s). • Answer: • full equation: • ionic equation: • net ionic equation: • spectator ion: