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Focus #2 8-26-08 pg. 86 (map). 1. What is the title of the map? 2. Where did all of these civilizations begin around? 3. pg. 80-84 Name three categories or elements of culture. 4. (Yes or No) Can different cultures have things in common?. Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt. Chapter 16 Section 1.

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focus 2 8 26 08 pg 86 map
Focus #2 8-26-08pg. 86 (map)
  • 1. What is the title of the map?
  • 2. Where did all of these civilizations begin around?
  • 3. pg. 80-84 Name three categories or elements of culture.
  • 4. (Yes or No) Can different cultures have things in common?
mesopotamia and ancient egypt1
Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt
  • Egypt, in North Africa, and Mesopotamia, in Southwest Asia, were the earliest known civilizations.
  • A civilization is a highly developed or advanced culture.
mesopotamia and ancient egypt2
Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt
  • The time of the earliest civilizations is known as the Bronze Age.
mesopotamia
Mesopotamia was located between the Tigris River and the Euphrates River.

Today, this area is

located in Iraq.

Why would people want to settle in between two rivers?

Mesopotamia
mesopotamia1
Mesopotamia

was part of the

region known as

the Fertile Crescent.

*Fertile Crescent-

1.Known for rich soil

2.good for farming 3.irrigation

4.easy transportation 5. protection

Mesopotamia
mesopotamia2
Mesopotamia
  • Around 4500 B.C., people began settling in this area.
  • Farming Revolution-People could produce their own food and not have to travel to get it.
  • 12 month calendar was used based on the phases of the moon.
  • With a steady food supply, the population grew larger.
questions notes pgs 80 85
Questions: (notes/pgs. 80-85)
  • 1. What is cultural diffusion?
  • 2. Name two ways that cultures are spreading faster than ever before. Explain.
  • 3. Why did early civilizations start around river valleys?
  • 4. Explain two benefits to living around water for early civilizations and one negative aspect for living around water.
sumer
The earliest city-states arose in an area called Sumer.

The Sumerians grew wealthy from trade.

Sumerians invented the wheel and sailboat.

Sumer
religion and government
Religion was based on polytheism.

At first, each city-state was a theocracy.

Religion and Government
first systems of writing
First Systems of Writing
  • The Sumerians were the first to write and keep records of laws.
  • Sumerians created cuneiform.
akkad and babylon
Akkad and Babylon
  • Akkad conquered Sumer and several other city-states.
  • Akkad’s King Sargon created the first empire.
  • Over time, the Akkadian Empire weakened and was defeated by the Kingdom of Babylon.
  • Babylon’s greatest king was Hammurabi.
  • Babylonians created a number system based on 60.
hammurabi s code
Code was a law.

“An eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth”

Hammurabi’s Code
a new babylon
Nebuchadnezzar rebuilt the city of Babylon and made it a center of trade and culture.

Babylon was known for its “hanging gardens.”

A New Babylon
phoenicians
Phoenicians were important traders of Mesopotamia.

They formed an alphabet that represented the sound of language.

Phoenicians
egypt gift of the nile
Egypt – Gift of the Nile
  • Egyptian civilization arose along the Nile River in Northeast Africa.
  • Most ancient Egyptians lived near the river and its delta.
the pharaoh
Narmer, a king of Upper Egypt, conquered Lower Egypt and united the two of them.

Narmer had the title of pharaoh.

Egypt was a theocracy.

The Pharaoh
religion
Egyptians believed in many gods and godesses. Each stood for some part of nature.

The most important were the sun god Re, the river god Hapi, and the sky god Horus.

Religion
religion1
Religion
  • The Egyptians believed in a form of life after death.
  • The linen wrapped bodies were known as mummies.
  • Rich people were buried in elaborate tombs.
  • The largest tombs were pyramids and belonged to pharaohs.
trade and conquest
The Hyksos ruled Egypt for 150 years. They taught the Egyptians to use bronze and iron weapons and horse-drawn chariots.

With the new technology, Egypt was able to trade in more places.

Trade and Conquest
egyptian writing
The ancient Egyptians used hieroglyphics.

They carved and painted hieroglyphic characters on their monuments or on papyrus.

Egyptian Writing
mathematics and medicine
They used a number system based on ten.

They were the first to use splints, bandages, and compresses.

Mathematics and Medicine
decline
Decline
  • Egypt eventually grew weak.
  • Priests and pharaohs struggled for power.
  • Egypt was conquered by Greece and Rome.
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