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DIPHTHERIA. Adrian Delgado 8th. Video. https:// www.youtube.com/watch?v=poK8YMA2RtQ. Definition. A bacterial disease caused by the bacterium Corynebacterium diphtheriae . It affects mucous membranes of throat and nose.

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diphtheria

DIPHTHERIA

Adrian Delgado

8th

video
Video
  • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=poK8YMA2RtQ
definition
Definition
  • A bacterial disease caused by the bacterium Corynebacteriumdiphtheriae.
  • It affects mucous membranes of throat and nose.
  • It creates a thick, gray material covering the back of throat, which can block the airway and cause breathing problems.
  • Advanced Diphtheria can be life threatening.
etiology
Etiology
  • Bacteria: CorynebacteriumDiphtheriae
    • Nonmotile
    • Noncapsulated
    • Club-shaped
    • Gram (+)
    • Aerobic
epidemiology
Epidemiology
  • Diphtheria is very common among young children due to that they are barely born and have low immune defenses.
  • The disease is common during the winter and spring. It is rare in the U.S, and it is endemic in Africa, South America, Asia, the South Pacific, the Middle East, and Eastern Europe and in Haiti and the Dominican Republic.
  • Due to the availability of vaccines, Diphtheria has become rare in the U.S. According to the World Health Organization, there was 1 incidence of Diphtheria in 2012.
mode of transmission
Mode of Transmission
  • Direct contact through coughing, sneezing
  • Airborne
  • Fomites
  • Contaminated objects
symptoms
Symptoms
  • A thick, gray membrane covering the throat and tonsils
  • Sore throat
  • Swollen lymph nodes in the neck
  • Trouble breathing
  • Nasal Discharge
  • Fever
  • Diphtheria can also infect the skin and cause typical pain and redness
diagnosis
Diagnosis
  • Collecting a sample of saliva and culture it for CorynebacteriumDiphtheriae.
  • Checking the mouth and noticing a gray membrane covering the throat and tonsils.
treatment
Treatment
  • An antitoxin is given to the patient to neutralize the diphtheria toxin that is circulating throughout the body.
  • It can also treated by giving antibiotics, such as penicillin and erythromycin.
prevention
Prevention
  • A vaccine is given to children at young ages. It is known as the DTaP vaccine, which consists of diphtheria, tetanus, and whooping cough (pertussis) vaccine.
  • The vaccine is given to children as early as 2 months of age.
  • Booster shots are given to maintain the immunity.
sources
Sources
  • Mayo Clinic Staff (2014, March 27). Diseases and Conditions: Diphtheria. Retrieved from http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/diphtheria/basics/definition/con-20022303
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2013, August 1) Chapter 3: Infectious Diseases Related To Travel – Diphtheria. Retrieved from http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/travel/yellowbook/2014/chapter-3-infectious-diseases-related-to-travel/diphtheria
  • Murphy, John R. (1996) Chapter 32: CorynebacteriumDiphtheriae. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK7971/#_A1764_
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2012, May 7) Diphtheria: Epidemiology and Prevention of Vaccine-Preventable Diseases - The Pink Book: Course Textbook - 12th Edition Second Printing (May 2012). Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/pubs/pinkbook/dip.html
  • World Health Organization (2013) Incidence time series for United States of America (the)  (USA). Retrieved from http://apps.who.int/immunization_monitoring/globalsummary/incidences?c=USA
  • Paul Cochrane (2013, February 21) Corynebacterium diphtheria and Diphtheria. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=poK8YMA2RtQ