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America Becomes a Colonial Power. H-O-H: Why did America join the imperialist club at the end of the 19c?. 1. Commercial/Business Interests. U. S. Foreign Investments: 1869-1908. 1. Commercial/Business Interests. American Foreign Trade: 1870-1914. 2. Military/Strategic Interests.

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a Colonial




Why did America

join the imperialist

club at the end

of the 19c?


1. Commercial/Business Interests

U. S. Foreign Investments: 1869-1908


1. Commercial/Business Interests

American Foreign Trade:1870-1914


2. Military/Strategic Interests

Alfred T. Mahan  The Influence of Sea Power on History: 1660-1783


3. Social Darwinist Thinking

The White Man’sBurden

The Hierarchyof Race


4. Religious/Missionary Interests

American Missionariesin China, 1905




of the



U. S. Missionaries in Hawaii

Imiola Church – first built in the late 1820s


U. S. View of Hawaiians

Hawaii becomes a U. S. Protectorate in 1849 by virtue of economic treaties.


Hawaiian Queen Liliuokalani

Hawaii for the Hawaiians!


U. S. Business Interests In Hawaii

1875 – Reciprocity Treaty

1890 – McKinley Tariff

1893 –Americanbusinessmen backed anuprising against Queen Liliuokalani.

Sanford Ballard Doleproclaims the Republic of Hawaii in 1894.


To The Victor Belongs the Spoils

Hawaiian Annexation Ceremony, 1898


Commodore Matthew Perry Opens Up Japan: 1853

The Japanese View of Commodore Perry




spanish american war in the philippines
Spanish thought first attack would be in Cuba

TR, asst. secretary of Navy ordered Dewey to attack the Spanish fleet

April 30th--Dewey destroyed the Spanish fleet in 7 hours

American troops joined forces w/Filipino rebels led by Emilio Aguinaldo

By August, Spanish troops surrendered

Spanish American War in the Philippines

Emilio Aguinaldo

Leader of the Filipinorebels


The Spanish-American War (1898):“That Splendid Little War”

How prepared was the US for war?


Theodore Roosevelt

Assistant Secretary of the Navy in the McKinley administration.

Imperialist and American nationalist.

Criticized PresidentMcKinley as having the backbone of a chocolate éclair!

Resigns his position to fight in Cuba.

Remember the Maine


Remember the Maineand to Hell with Spain!

Funeral for Maine victims in Havana

spanish american war in caribbean
Naval blockade of Cuba—Spanish fleet trapped in Santiago Harbor & were destroyed when trying to escape

US army was a small force, but supplemented by 125,000 volunteers

Army was poorly trained, poorly equipt

In June, first troops land in Cuba

Strategic battles (Kettle Hill, SanJuan Hill) by Rough Riders, African American Regiments (Buffalo Soldiers) and US Calvary

By end of July, US troops invade PR

Spanish American War in Caribbean

The Treaty of Paris: 1898

Cuba was freed from Spanish rule.

Spain gave up Puerto Rico and the island ofGuam.

The U. S. paid Spain$20 mil. for thePhilippines.

The U. S. becomesan imperial power!

results and lessons
Spanish home fleet recalled while en route to the Philippines

U.S. technological superiority overwhelms Spanish

U.S. becomes dominant power in the Caribbean Sea

Improvement needed in fire control and amphibious doctrine

Results and lessons


U. S. citizenship

follow the flag??


Cuban Independence?

Teller Amendment (1898)

Platt Amendment (1903)

  • Cuba was not to enter into any agreements with foreign powers that would endanger its independence.
  • The U.S. could intervene in Cuban affairs if necessary to maintain an efficient, independent govt.
  • Cuba must lease Guantanamo Bay to the U.S. for naval and coaling station.
  • Cuba must not build up an excessive public debt.

Senator Orville Platt


"THE FILIPINO'S FIRST BATH.""McKinley -- 'Oh, you dirty boy!'"Judge, Arkell Publishing Company, New York, June 10, 1899 [artist: Grant Hamilton]

“Gentlemen, I went down on my knees and prayed to the Almighty God for Guidance. There was nothing left for us to do but to take the Filipinos and civilize and christianize them, and by God’s grace do the very best by them”

philippine american war first war for humanity

Revolt led by Emilio Aguinaldo against US rule

3 years


Americans—4,234 dead; 2,800 wounded

Filipinos—18,000 killed; 20,000 famine

Cost--$400 million

Philippine-American WarFirst War for Humanity
andrew carnegie
“Congratulations!! You seem to have finished your work of civilizing the Filipinos. It is thought that about 8,000 of them have been completely civilized and sent to heaven” Andrew Carnegie
philippine american war post war
US president appoints Governor

Appointed Governor appoints members of the upper house of the legislature

Filipinos elect lower house

Philippines gradually moved toward independence (1946)

Philippine-American WarPost War

"SPEAKING FROM EXPERIENCE. (Through Professor Marconi's wireless telegraphy)" "AMERICAN INDIAN (to Filipino) -- 'Be Good, or you will be dead!'"Judge, Arkell Publishing Company, New York, circa 1899 [artist: Victor Gillam]





Puerto Rico: 1898

  • 1900 - Foraker Act.
    • PR became an “unincorporated territory.”
    • Citizens of PR, not of the US.
    • Import duties on PR goods
  • 1901-1903  the Insular Cases.
    • Constitutional rights were not automatically extended to territorial possessions.
    • Congress had the power to decide these rights.
    • Import duties laid down by the Foraker Act were legal!

Puerto Rico: 1898

  • 1917 – Jones Act.
    • Gave full territorial status to PR.
    • Removed tariff duties on PR goods coming into the US.
    • PRs elected theirown legislators &governor to enforcelocal laws.
    • PRs could NOT votein US presidentialelections.
    • A resident commissioner was sent to Washington to vote for PR in the House.

Panama: The King’s Crown

  • 1903  Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty.
    • also called The Treaty No Panamanian Signed
    • Panama later agreed to terms
    • US was to receive rights to a canal zone which was to extend ten miles on either side of the canal route in perpetuity
    • Panama was to receive a payment from US up to $10 million and an annual rental payments of $250,000.

Panama Canal

TR in Panama(Construction begins in 1904)


The Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine: 1905

Chronic wrongdoing… may in America, as elsewhere, ultimately require intervention by some civilized nation, and in the Western Hemisphere the adherence of the United States to the Monroe Doctrine may force the United States, however reluctantly, in flagrant cases of such wrongdoing or impotence, to the exercise of an international police power .


Stereotypes of the Chinese Immigrant

Oriental [Chinese] Exclusion Act, 1887


The Open Door Policy

Secretary John Hay.

Give all nations equalaccess to trade in China.

Guaranteed that China would NOT be taken over by any one foreign power.


The Boxer Rebellion: 1900

The Peaceful Harmonious Fists.






Treaty of Portsmouth: 1905

Nobel Peace Prize for Teddy


Taft’s “Dollar Diplomacy”

Improve financialopportunities for American businesses.

Use private capital tofurther U. S. interestsoverseas.

Therefore, the U.S. should create stability and order abroad that would best promote America’s commercial interests.


The Mexican Revolution: 1910s

Victoriano Huerta seizes control of Mexico and puts Madero in prison where he was murdered.

Venustiano Carranza, Pancho Villa, Emiliano Zapata, and Alvaro Obregon fought against Huerta.

The U.S. also got involved by occupying Veracruz and Huerta fled the country.

Eventually Carranza would gain power in Mexico.


The Mexican Revolution: 1910s

Emiliano Zapata

Pancho Villa

Venustiano Carranza

Porfirio Diaz

Francisco I Madero


Wilson’s “Moral Diplomacy”

The U. S. shouldbe the conscienceof the world.

Spread democracy.

Promote peace.

Condemn colonialism.


Searching for Banditos

General John J. Pershing with PanchoVilla in 1914.