flavonoid containing drugs buchu leaf folium buchu n.
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Flavonoid containing drugs Buchu Leaf (Folium Buchu ) . Origin: the dried leaves of Barosma betulina known as short Buchu, B. cranulata know as oval Buchu and B. serratifolia known as long Buchu F. Rutaceae Active constituents:

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flavonoid containing drugs buchu leaf folium buchu
Flavonoidcontaining drugsBuchu Leaf(Folium Buchu)

Origin: the dried leaves of Barosma betulina known as short Buchu, B. cranulata know as oval Buchu and B. serratifolia known as long Buchu F. Rutaceae

Active constituents:

1- Crystalline flavone glycosides diosmin (present in epidermal cells) and hesperidine.

2- Mucilage: of pectose type present in epidermal cells.

3- Volatile oil with mint like odour containing mainly diosphenol.



1- Diuretic and urinary tract disinfectant due to volatile oil.

2- Treatment of capillary fragility due to diosmin and hespiridin, so can be used in varicose veins, pile and different types of bleeding.

Chemical tests:

1- KOH: canary yellow colour.

2- Sudan III: red colour due to volatile oil.

3- Rhuthenium red: red colour due to pectose mucilage.

saponin containing drugs liquorice root radix glycyrrhizae
Saponincontaining drugsLiquorice Root(Radix Glycyrrhizae)

Origin:the dried unpeeled or peeled roots and stolons of Glycyrrhiza glabra F. Leguminosae.

Active constituents:

  • triterpenoid saponin glycoside: glycyrrhizine which is K and Ca salts of glycyrrizinic acid.
  • Flavonoid glycoside: liquiritin and isoliqueritin which give the root its yellow colour.
  • Sugars.
Powder:light yellow in peeled or brownish yellow or purplish brown in the unpeeled, having faint odour and very sweetish taste, showing fragments of:
  • fibres accompanied by crystal sheath.
  • Xylem vessels.
  • Prisms of calcium oxalate.
  • Starch granules.



  • Respiratory disorders: spasmolytic, antitussive, demulcent and expectorant, so used in treatment of asthma, acute and chronic bronchitis and chronic cough.
  • Gastric, duodenal and esophageal ulceration or inflammation.
  • Arthritis and rheumatism, it’s a mild anti-inflammatory due to corticosteroid effect of its glycyrrhizin content.


  • Inflammatory skin disorders.
  • Mouth ulcers.

Chemical tests:

  • froth test.
  • Powder + H2SO4 → orange red colour
coumarin containing drugs 1 ammi visnaga fruit fructus ammi visnagae
Coumarincontaining drugs1-Ammi visnaga Fruit(FructusAmmiVisnagae)

Origin:the dried ripe fruit of Ammi visnaga F. Umbelliferae

Active constituents:

  • furanochromone bitter principle: khellin and visnagin.
  • Pyranocoumarin bitter principle: visnadin (a potent vasodialator).


  • relax smooth muscle of the ureter, so used to ease the passage of renal caculi.
  • Khellin is antispasmodic given in renal and biliary colic, in bronchial asthma and in angina pectoris attacks.

Chemical tests:

Boil the powder with water for 1 min., add 1-2 drops of thid decoction to 1 cc solution of NaOH (1 in 1), shake, rose red colour is produced within 2 min.

2 a majus fructus ammi majus
2- A. majus(Fructus Ammi majus)

Origin: the dried ripe fruits of Ammi majus F. umbelliferae

Active constituents:

Furanocoumarin bitter principles: xanthotoxin, ammoidin and imperatonin.

Uses:treatment of leukodermia and alopecia and in combination herbal therapy for psoriasis.

Chemical tests:addition of powder decoction to NaOH solution gives no rose red colour.

tannin containing drugs galls blue galls aleppo galls turkish galls
Tannin containing drugsGalls (Blue Galls, Aleppo Galls, Turkish Galls)

Origin: dried excrescence (pathological outgrowth) resulting from the deposition of the eggs of Cynips gallae tinctoria F. Cynipidae on the young twigs of Quercus infectoria F. Fagaceae. Collected before the escape of the insect and known as blue galls.


Morphology:subspherical, 12-20 mm in diameter, external surface is bluish green to olive green in colour, showing blunt short projections. Internally it is buff in colour.

Active constituents:50-70% pyrogallol tannin: gallotannic acid, gallic acid and ellagic acid.

Uses:Medicinally: astringent, haemostatic used in treatment of hemorrhoids in form of supp. or oint.

Industrially: 1- in manufacture of ink and paints

2- in tanning of leather.

Chemical test:FeCl3 → bluish black colour.