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An overview on the Cold application throughout the world. Jacques Guilpart Head of the Refrigeration processes engineering research unit, Cemagref, France French delegate to the International Institute of refrigeration jacques.guilpart@cemagref.fr + 33 1 40 96 60 26.

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slide1

An overview on the Cold application throughout the world

Jacques Guilpart

Head of the Refrigeration processes engineering research unit, Cemagref, France

French delegate to the International Institute of refrigeration

jacques.guilpart@cemagref.fr

+ 33 1 40 96 60 26

slide2
How would the world look like without artificial cold ?

or : the cold, a forgotten need … an evidence

For cooling … ?

Just push on the button !

the cold an evident application on food
The cold : an evident application on food …

The food cold chain … from the first ages to the 1800’ths

Preservation (quality, safety, … Cf L. Bog Sorensen)

the cold an evident application on food1
The cold : an evident application on food …

The food cold chain … in 1900’th

Thermodynamics discovery

slide5

The cold : an evident application on food …

The food cold chain … in 1950’th

CFC discovery in the 1930’th

slide6

The cold : an evident application on food …

The food cold chain … today

Cf V. Silvera, M. Debord, G. Chuzel, L. de Camargo, N. Filho

slide7

The cold : some less evident applications on food

Texturation and formulation

Butter and fat

Chocolate

Dairy products and other semiliquid foods

Ice creams

Lyophilisation

Baby food

Prepared meats

slide8

The cold : some less evident applications on food

Control of fermentation

Wine

Beer

Champaign

Cryoconcentration

Cryoseparation

Juices and other liquid foods

Tartric acid (wine)

And some other application (Cf J. Evans & R. Masheroni)

slide9

The cold : an evident application on food …

One can estimate that approx 60% of the food we eat in developed countries needs cold application :

530 kG/hab. year of solid foods, incl.

308 kg of refrigerated food

42 kg of frozen food.

Over the 4 500 Mt of the food produced worldwide, 1 500 Mt could be refrigerated to good effect … but only 350 MT are actually refrigerated.

25% up to 30% of the world food production is lost; the application of cold could save a large amount of this food.

3 million death per year are caused by unhealthy diet; the application of cold could drastically reduce this deplorable score.

slide10

The cold : an evident application on food …

Fiction prospective …

Mean life duration in year (France)

slide11

The cold : an evident application on food …

Fiction prospective …

Development of the cold chain …

but the cold throughout the world is also
But the cold throughout the world is also …

Air conditioning

in the 1950’th early …

but the cold throughout the world is also1
But the cold throughout the world is also …

Air conditioning

and more and more today …

Domestic

Buildings

Mobile

but the cold throughout the world is also3
But the cold throughout the world is also …

Liquefaction of energetic gases

LNG, LPG

but the cold throughout the world is also4
But the cold throughout the world is also …

Liquefaction of industrial gases

N2, O2, CO2

He, H2, …

but the cold throughout the world is also5
But the cold throughout the world is also …

… and the liquefied gases applications in iron industry,

but the cold throughout the world is also9
But the cold throughout the world is also …

… Some medical applications for drugs processing (and preservation)

but the cold throughout the world is also10
But the cold throughout the world is also …

… and in surgery

a couple of years ago …

slide24

The cold applications throughout the world

Relative economic weigh of the different activities related to the cold applications

1991

slide25

The cold applications throughout the world

An evidence : The cold is largely used in the food industry domain …

The cold production is mainly based on vapour compression cycles with liquid/vapour phase change (Cf R.Aguilo)

CFC, HCFC, HFC

and other refrigerants

slide26

The cold applications throughout the world

Ozone layer

Global warming …

=> Drastic regulation on chlorinated refrigerant use

Cf S. Van der Sluis

slide27

The International Institute of Refrigeration

  • Intergovernmental organization
  • 61 Member Countries

All the mentioned topics are the concern of the international institute of refrigeration …

mission of the iir
Mission of the IIR

The International Institute of Refrigeration

  • To promote expansion of knowledge and to disseminate information
      • on all refrigeration technologies and
      • all applications
      • for the benefit of humanity
  • To promote knowledge of refrigeration technologies and all applications in order to address today’s major issues
      • Food safety
      • Protection of the environment
        • Reduction of global warming
        • Prevention of ozone depletion
      • Development of the least developed countries
        • Food
        • Health
slide29

The International Institute of Refrigeration

Heat pumps,

energy recovery

E

E1

E2

Air conditioning

Refrigerated

transport

Refrigerated

storage

D

D1

D2

Food science

and engineering

C

Cryobiology,

cryomedicine

C1

C2

Refrigerating

equipment

Thermodynamics and

transfer processes

B

B1

B2

Liquefaction and

separation of gases

Cryophysics,

cryoengineering

A

A1

A2

training courses
Training Courses

The International Institute of Refrigeration

  • Good Practice in Refrigeration
  • Refrigeration and Preservation of Fruit and Vegetables
  • Refrigeration and Preservation of Fish
  • Refrigeration and the Environment
  • Refrigeration Fundamentals
working parties
Working parties

The International Institute of Refrigeration

Chairman

WP Phase-Change Materials and Ice Slurries L. Fournaison

WP Mitigation of GHGs P. Lundqvist

WP Preservation of Genetic Resources

WP Refrigerant System Safety L. Rolfsman

WP Data and Models (Food) B. Nicolai

WP Cold Chain in Developing Countries

WP Cold Chain Optimization N. Amos

WP Magnetic Cooling P. Egolf

WP Energy Labelling in the Cold Chain G. Panozzo

SC Test Stations (refrigerated transport) G. Johansson

SC Display Cabinets S. Van der Sluis

slide33

The International Institute of Refrigeration

Organisation and sponsoring of conferences

10th WFLO Education Program, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, Feb. 5-6, 2007

2nd International Conference on Magnetic Refrigeration at Room Temperature, Portoroz, Slovenia, April 11-13, 2007

Ammonia Refrigeration Technology for Today and Tomorrow, Ohrid, Macedonia (FYROM), April 19-21, 2007

LNG 15 – Liquefied Natural Gas, Barcelona, Spain, April 24-27, 2007

New Ventures in Freeze-drying, Strasbourg, France, Nov. 7-9, 2007

4th International Conference on Cryogenics – ICCR’2008, Shanghai, China, April 6-9, 2008

4th Central European Congress of Food – CEFood 2008, Cavtat, Croatia, April 9-11, 2008

8th IIR-Gustav Lorentzen Conference on Natural Working Fluids (GL2008), Copenhagen, Denmark, Sept. 7-10, 2008

International Sorption Heat Pump Conference 2008- ISHPCO8, Seoul, South Korea, Sept. 23-26, 2008

welcome to the 22nd international congress of refrigeration refrigeration creates the future
Welcome to the 22nd International Congress of Refrigeration« Refrigeration creates the future »

The International Institute of Refrigeration

Beijing, China, August 21-26, 2007