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By the end of this lecture you will be able to: - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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LEARNING OBJECTIVES. By the end of this lecture you will be able to: Understand that ENERGY can be transformed from one form to another. Know that energy exist in two forms; free energy - available for doing work or as heat - a form unavailable for doing work.

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Presentation Transcript
slide1

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

  • By the end of this lecture you will be able to:
  • Understand that ENERGY can be transformed from one form to another.
  • Know that energy exist in two forms; free energy - available for doing work or as heat - a form unavailable for doing work.
  • Appreciate that the Sun provides most of the energy needed for life on Earth.
  • Explain why photosynthesis is so important to energy and material flow for life on earth.
  • Know why plants tend to be green in appearance.
  • Equate the organelle of photosynthesis in eukaryotes with the chloroplast.
  • Describe the organization of the chloroplast.
  • Understand that photosynthesis is a two fold process composed of the light-dependent reactions (i.e., light reactions) and the light independent reactions (i.e. Calvin Cycle or Dark Reactions).
  • Tell where the light reactions and the CO2 fixation reactions occur in the chloroplast.
  • Define chlorophylls giving their basic composition and structure.
  • Draw the absorption spectrum of chlorophyll and compare it to the action spectrum of photosynthesis.
  • Define the Reaction Centers and Antennae and describe how it operates.
  • Describe cyclic photophosphorylation of photosynthesis.
  • Describe noncyclic photophosphorylation of photosynthesis.
slide3

THE BASICS OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS

  • Almost all plants are photosynthetic autotrophs, as are some bacteria and protists
  • Autotrophs generate their own organic matter through photosynthesis

(c) Euglena

(d) Cyanobacteria

(b) Kelp

(a) Mosses, ferns, and

flowering plants

light energy harvested by plants other photosynthetic autotrophs
Light Energy Harvested by Plants & Other Photosynthetic Autotrophs

6 CO2 + 6 H2O + light energy → C6H12O6 + 6 O2

slide7

WHY ARE PLANTS GREEN?

It's not that easy bein' green Having to spend each day the color of the leaves When I think it could be nicer being red or yellow or gold Or something much more colorful like that…

Kermit the Frog

electromagnetic spectrum and visible light
Electromagnetic Spectrum and Visible Light

Gammarays

Infrared & Microwaves

X-rays

UV

Radio waves

Visible light

Wavelength (nm)

slide9

WHY ARE PLANTS GREEN?

Different wavelengths of visible light are seen by the human eye as different colors.

Gammarays

Micro-waves

Radio

waves

X-rays

UV

Infrared

Visible light

Wavelength (nm)

slide10

The feathers of male cardinals are loaded with carotenoid pigments. These pigments absorb some wavelengths of light and reflect others.

Reflected light

Sunlight minus absorbed wavelengths or colors equals the apparent color of an object.

slide11

Why are plants green?

Reflected light

Transmitted light

slide12

WHY ARE PLANTS GREEN?

Plant Cells have Green Chloroplasts

The thylakoid membrane of the chloroplast is impregnated with photosynthetic pigments (i.e., chlorophylls, carotenoids).

slide13

THE COLOR OF LIGHT SEEN IS THE COLOR NOT ABSORBED

  • Chloroplasts absorb light energy and convert it to chemical energy

Reflected

light

Light

Absorbed

light

Transmitted

light

Chloroplast

slide14

AN OVERVIEW OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS

  • Photosynthesis is the process by which autotrophic organisms use light energy to make sugar and oxygen gas from carbon dioxide and water

Carbondioxide

Water

Glucose

Oxygengas

PHOTOSYNTHESIS

slide15

AN OVERVIEW OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS

Light

  • The light reactions convert solar energy to chemical energy
    • Produce ATP & NADPH

Chloroplast

NADP

ADP

+ P

Calvin

cycle

  • The Calvin cycle makes sugar from carbon dioxide

Light

reactions

slide16

Chloroplasts: Sites of Photosynthesis

  • Photosynthesis
  • Occurs in chloroplasts,
  • All green plant parts have chloroplasts and carry out photosynthesis
    • The leaves have the most chloroplasts
    • The green color comes from chlorophyll in the chloroplasts
    • The pigments absorb light energy
photosynthesis occurs in chloroplasts
Photosynthesis occurs in chloroplasts
  • In most plants, photosynthesis occurs primarily in the leaves, in the chloroplasts
  • A chloroplast contains:
    • stroma, a fluid
    • grana, stacks of thylakoids
  • The thylakoids contain chlorophyll
    • Chlorophyll is the green pigment that captures light for photosynthesis
slide18

Chloroplast

LEAF CROSS SECTION

MESOPHYLL CELL

  • The location and structure of chloroplasts

LEAF

Mesophyll

Intermembrane space

CHLOROPLAST

Outer

membrane

Granum

Innermembrane

Grana

Stroma

Thylakoidcompartment

Stroma

Thylakoid

chloroplast pigments
Chloroplast Pigments
  • Chloroplasts contain several pigments
  • Chlorophyll a
  • Chlorophyll b
  • Carotenoids

Figure 7.7

slide21

Chloroplast

  • A Photosynthesis Road Map

Light

Stroma

NADP

Stack of

thylakoids

ADP

+ P

Light

reactions

Calvin

cycle

Sugar used for

 Cellular respiration

 Cellulose

 Starch

 Other organic compounds

review photosynthesis uses light energy to make food molecules
Review: Photosynthesis uses light energy to make food molecules
  • A summary of the chemical processes of photosynthesis

Chloroplast

Light

Photosystem IIElectron transport chains Photosystem I

CALVIN CYCLE

Stroma

Electrons

Cellular respiration

Cellulose

Starch

Other organic compounds

LIGHT REACTIONS

CALVIN CYCLE