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2/25 Focus: The Crusades and improvements in farming helped contribute to renewed interest in trade in Western Europe Do Now: How did the Crusades renew interest in trade in Western Europe? . Improvements in Farming. Iron Plow

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slide1
2/25 Focus:
    • The Crusades and improvements in farming helped contribute to renewed interest in trade in Western Europe
  • Do Now:
    • How did the Crusades renew interest in trade in Western Europe?
improvements in farming
Improvements in Farming
  • Iron Plow
    • The use of the Iron plow made farming easier and increased food production
  • The Horse Collar and iron horse shoes
    • allowed farmers to use horses rather than oxen to plow fields
    • Horses were faster and more efficient
improvements in farming1
Improvements in Farming
  • The Three Field System
    • Increased food production and made soil more fertile
trade improves
Trade Improves
  • Rise of trading centers
    • Italy in southern Europe
      • Genoa and Venice
    • Flanders in Northern Europe
trade improves1
Trade Improves
  • Trade Fairs
    • Took place in towns where trade routes met
trade improves2
Trade Improves
  • The Hanseatic League
    • Association of Germanic cities to protect economic interests
    • Protected traders from piracy
trade improves3
Trade Improves
  • Improvements in trade led to Commercial Revolution
    • Increased use of currency
    • Banking and investment increases
    • Rise of Capitalism
      • Economic system where business is owned privately to make a profit
      • Competition is a key component
growth of towns
Growth of Towns
  • Trading centers and Trade Fairs led to the birth of towns
    • Walled and protected near the manor
    • King or lord granted charter
      • Setup the rights and privileges of a town
    • People governed and defended the town
growth of towns1
Growth of Towns
  • Many serfs left the manors and moved into towns/cities
    • Could be free in cities if they hid from their lord for a year and one day
    • Increased populations in towns
      • Towns were often overcrowded and dirty
    • Led to a decline in feudalism
closure
Closure
  • Identify one way that farming improved during the Middle Ages
  • What were trade guilds?
slide14
2/26 Focus:
    • During the High Middle Ages, European society became more stable and made cultural gains in the areas of art, literature, and architecture
  • Do Now:
    • Identify one effect that the renewal of trade had on Western Europe
trade guilds
Trade Guilds
  • Association of businesses and craftsmen
    • Set prices for goods, wages, and standards for quality
    • Apprentices worked for 3-11 years under a master
    • Strangers had to pay a toll to the guilds to sell their products in a town
    • Guilds took care of widows and children of deceased members
results of trade improvements
Results of Trade Improvements
  • Commercial Revolution
  • Growth of middle class
  • New jobs titles
    • Bankers, manufacturers, craftsmen
  • Rise of national kingdoms
revival of learning
Revival of Learning
  • The University
    • Increased the flow of Greek learning into Europe
    • Goal of attending universities was often to get a job in government or with the Church
    • Helped to create a new educated class
literature
Literature
  • Literacy began to increase in Europe after 1200 AD.
    • Coincided with growth of cities
  • Authors began writing in the language of their countries rather than just Latin
literature1
Literature
  • Epics and Romances were long poems that tell a story
    • Epics
      • Often related to war and heroes
      • The Song of Roland
    • Romances
      • Love stories and chivalry
      • King Arthur and the Knights of the Roundtable
literature2
Literature
  • The Canterbury Tales by Geoffrey Chaucer
    • Collection of stories about a group of pilgrims from various social groups
    • Provide a description of life in the middle ages
philosophy
Philosophy
  • Thomas Aquinas
    • Studied the works of Greek philosophers
      • Aristotle
    • Attempted to use logic and reason to prove Christian teachings and prove the existence of God
      • Scholasticism
architecture
Architecture
  • Gothic Architecture used to build churches
  • Used high spires and flying buttresses
  • Replaced Roman style of arches and domes
architecture1
Architecture
  • The flying buttress allowed churches to be built much taller and larger window
    • Supported walls from the outside
    • Allowed for higher ceilings and large stained glass windows
    • Eliminated the need for columns
illumination
Illumination
  • The process of decorating a written manuscript with pictures or designs
    • Often used in religious text
tapestries
Tapestries
  • Large wool wall coverings that depicted life in the Middle Ages
closure1
Closure
  • Identify one example of medieval literature.
  • Identify the architectural style that developed in Europe during the High Middle Ages.
  • What were trade guilds?
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