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The Washington Township Liberty Fellowship Washington Township, NJ Fall 2010 Colloquium
AIHE Signature StrategyARTISTFugitive Slave Act Time Line Civil War Compromise Of 1850 Fugitive Slave Act 1763 Proclamation Line 1789 3/5ths Comp. 1793 Fugitive Slave Act 1820 Missouri Compromise Tariff of 1828 Nullification Crisis Sectionalism: Loyalty to the interests of one’s own region over that of the nation Some of the Issues: Slavery - Representation - Tariffs - State’s Rights - New Territories - Relations with Europe THE DEVELOPMENT OF IDEOLOGICAL AND SECTIONAL ISSUES THAT OVERRIDE NATIONAL INTERESTS
Article 4 Section 2 of the US Constitution Fugitive Slave Clause No Person held to Service or Labour in one State, under the Laws thereof, escaping into another, shall, in Consequence of any Law or Regulation therein, be discharged from such Service or Labour, but shall be delivered up on Claim of the Party to whom such Service or Labour may be due. Fugitive Slave Act of 1793
Fugitive Slave…from??? Escaped Slave Saturday May 21, 1796 The Pennsylvania Gazette Tuesday, May 24, 1796
President’s House: High Street Philadelphia Oney Judge “Inspection and Sale of a Negro”. Photograph. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Web. 27 Sep. 2010 Life of George Washington: The Farmer by Junius Brutus Stearnes (c.1853)
Historical Background to 1850 • Tariff (1828) of Abominations • South Carolina’s Exposition and Protest 1828 • Nat Turner’s Slave Rebellion 1831 • Force Bill of 1832 • Compromise of 1833 Compromise of 1850 The Fugitive Slave Act
What is A.R.T.I.S.T.?AIHE Signature Strategy • A.R.T.I.S.T. is a method of primary source analysis that allows students to process information in a written or visual source of a historic nature. • An acronym, each letter stands for an important part of the process. Using the Broad Brush to Paint a Picture of History
Who can be an A.R.T.I.S.T.? • A.R.T.I.S.T. can be used with Middle and High School students. • After a brief introduction to the method teachers can assign students to analyze a source either individually or in small groups.
What does A.R.T.I.S.T. stand for? • Author • Reason • To whom • Immediate effect • Subsequent effects • Time period
USING ARTISTTO ANALYZE THEFUGITIVE SLAVE ACT OF 1850 Image from Motivational Posters by: abundancesecrets.com
Who is the Author of the Document or Object? James Murray Mason 1798-1871 James Mason a Virginian and grandson of George Mason, drafted the second Fugitive Slave Act. G. Mason drafted the Virginia Declaration of Rights (1776) Did not sign the Constitution for fear of Federal Power over States Rights. When researching the AUTHOR it is important to analyze the background of the individual in order to reflect upon such issues as sociocultural influences and bias. A
Henry Clay addressing the US Senate. Daniel Webster is seated to the left of Clay and John C. Calhoun is to the left of the Speaker’s chair. Circa 1855 Supported in Congress by: March 7, 1850 Daniel Webster endorses the Compromise of 1850 in a 3 hour speech A
Henry ClayApril 12, 1777 - June 29, 1852 The Great Triumvirate John Caldwell Calhoun(March 18, 1782 - March 31, 1850) Daniel Webster January 18, 1782 - October 24, 1852 The Great Compromiser The Cast Iron Man The Great Orator
R The Fugitive Slave Act of 1793 was weakened because some states changed laws so that a slave who went into a free state was automatically free. What is the reason or purpose of the document or object? In 1842 the U.S. Supreme Court ruled in Prigg v. Pennsylvania: States did not have assist in hunting or capturing runaway slaves. The South was concerned about the future security of slavery in the nation and the problem of runaway slaves. A signaling game: Southerners congressmen wanted to “test the water” and see where their constituencies were in the North.
To Whom T Abolitionists and Members of Congress from the North Southerners had to obtain support from Northerners to pass pro-slavery laws: Organization of territories without restrictions on slavery. Who was the audience? By allowing the admission of California without a slave state the South was afraid that the nation would move against slavery as a whole. Why is this so important? Reflecting on audience allows the reader to understand the Economic, Social and Political (ESP) impetus behind the document or object. It is also connected to the previous phase of ARTIST…. REASON.
I Immediate Consequence What were the immediate consequences of the production of the document or object? This was one of the harshest congressional measures ever. Federal court officials (Commissioners) who were paid to help slave holders seize fugitives. All the slaveholder or his agent had to do to prove his case was present an affidavit from some legal officer in his home state. The runaway not only had no right to a jury trial but could not even testify. These commissioners could conscript the physical aid of any private citizen. Obstructing the law was subject to a $1000 fine, six months in prison, and $1000 civil damages for each escaped slave. With this law, Southerners seem to have abandoned their principle of state sovereignty.
Subsequent Impact S It made slavery a national institution. What was the subsequent impact of the source under consideration? Terror for Freemen: Thousands of free African Americans in the North fled to Canada. From 1850 to 1860, total slave population increased by more than 20 percent, permanent escapes reported actually declined. Northern mobs ended up attacking slave catchers, broke into jails, and rescued fugitive slaves. Nine states either provided for legal defense of runaways or defied the national government by requiring jury trials. It strengthened abolitionist’s groups and causes throughout the United states.
Time Period T When the nation was in turmoil over the institution of slavery and its future on a number of fronts. When was the document/object produced? After continued attempts and failures to compromise on the issue of slavery. Within a decade the nation would be at war in an effort to resolve what compromise had failed to resolve. How does the interpretation of the document/object change over time? On June 28, 1864 the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 was repealed. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part4/4p2915.html New York Times: Wednesday July 15, 1864 The Fugitive Slave Law--Petitions for its Repeal. The petitions to Congress for the repeal of the Fugitive Salve law indicate the reawakening of the public mind at the North on this subject. The late rendition of BURNS at Boston is undoubtedly the immediate exciting cause, But the overthrow of the Missouri Compromise has also had a material influence in this direction.
Artists Draw Conclusions! • After students have applied A.R.T.I.S.T. ask them to draw conclusions from the document or source. Ask leading questions to get your students to fully process the document and its place in history.
One Case Study The Case of Anthony Burns Defendant: Anthony BurnsFugitive slaveOwner Charles SuttleLawyers: Richard Henry Dana, Jr., Charles Mayo EllisMay 25-June 2, 1854Outcome: Anthony Burns was the property of Charles Suttle and was returned to him. • 1852 Suttle Sends Burns to Work in Richmond • March 1854 Burns escapes on a Boston bound ship and gets a job in a Boston clothing store. • May 24, 1854 Burns is seized by salve catchers under the Fugitive Slave Law • May 26 Abolitionists storm the courthouse in Boston • May 27 US Commissioner orders Burns’ return to his master
June 2, 1854 The runaway slaves, Anthony Burns and Thomas Sims march through the streets of Boston escorted by federal troops to a ship bound for Virginia February 22, 1855Reverend Leonard A. Grimes of Boston’s Twelfth Baptist Church raised money for the purchase of Anthony Burns’ freedom. Grimes purchases Burns, who then returns to Massachusetts a free man. Burns later studied at Oberlin College in Ohio, and became a minister.
Other Case Studies • 1781 Brom and Bett v J. Ashley • 1783 Quock Walker Trial • 1851 Shadrack Minkins The Liberator Files http://www.theliberatorfiles.com/ 23
Continued Developments: • Uncle Tom’s Cabin; Life Among the Lowly • Kansas Nebraska Act 1854 • Bleeding Kansas 1854-1858 • Dred Scott v Sanford 1857 • Election of 1860 • Fort Sumter 1861
The Civil War 620,000 Dead Countless Civilian Dead and Wounded Was this war fought because of Slavery? Could the Slavery question have been solved without the Civil War? Did Compromise Work? Is Congress Better at Compromise Today?
Interactive Session: Using ARTIST to Interpret the Following Document Title: Anti-Fugitive Slave Law Meeting Year:1851 Type of document:Resolutions • Author • Reason • To whom • Immediate effect • Subsequent effects • Time period Painting History with a Broad Brush