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NHD Watershed: Tools and Applications. By Pete Steeves, USGS Water Resources Discipline Northboro, Massachusetts 508-490-5054 [email protected] Acknowledgements. Jennifer Hill, Horizons Systems Corporation Aleda Freeman, MassGIS Craig Johnston, USGS. This Talk Focuses on:.

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Nhd watershed tools and applications l.jpg

NHD Watershed: Tools and Applications

By Pete Steeves, USGS Water Resources Discipline

Northboro, [email protected]

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  • Jennifer Hill, Horizons Systems Corporation

  • Aleda Freeman, MassGIS

  • Craig Johnston, USGS

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This Talk Focuses on:

  • 2 NHD ArcView Toolkit extensions

    • NHD Watershed

    • NHD Watershed Characteristics

  • 3 Applications of these extensions

    • VT Flood Frequency project

    • New Hampshire Low Flow project

    • Massachusetts Perennial / Intermittent streams project

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  • Massachusetts Watershed Analyst (MassGIS and USGS collaboration)

  • Tools and datasets not immediately transferable nationally

  • An application, Massachusetts ‘Streamstats’ showcases the applicability of these tools

    • http://ma.water.usgs.gov/streamstats

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NHD Watershed: Objectives

  • To develop a tool in the NHD ArcView Toolkit which delineates a watershed from any point location on NHD reaches quickly, reliably, and accurately

  • To relate the resulting watershed to the reach and measure of the selected point (in essence, create a “polygon event”)

  • To horizontally integrate 3 earth-surface-based physiographic datasets (hydrography, basin boundaries, and elevation data) through a series of pre-processing steps

  • To document the pre-processing steps for others

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National Datalayers

  • Hi-resolution NHD (1:24,000 scale)

  • 12-digit hydrologic unit (HUC) boundaries (future WBD) (1:24,000 source scale)

  • National Elevation Dataset (NED)

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Pilot HUC:White River Basin, VT (01080105)

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Pre-processing steps - NHD

  • Convert the NHD route.rch table to an arc coverage and direct all flow downstream

  • Remove all routes that are not connected to major networks

  • Optionally remove sections of braids (resulting in a dendrite network)

  • Extend the exit centerline ~ 50 meters beyond the HUC boundary

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Pre-processing steps - WBD

  • Optionally add sub-basin boundaries to the 12-digit HUC datalayer.

  • Buffer the 8-digit HUC boundary 4000 meters for the subsequent TOPOGRID command analysis area

  • Buffer the 8-digit HUC boundary 50 meters to ensure the vector boundary will be used in all raster analysis steps

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Pre-processing steps - NED

  • Run TOPOGRID to drainage enforce the NED to NHD. Input includes:

    • The edited dendrite network from NHD

    • A NED-derived point coverage of elevation values

  • Use a series of GRID steps to exaggerate the watershed boundary ridges where TOPOGRID output coincides with the WBD

  • Run ‘agree.aml’ to ‘canyonize’ the dendrite using output from the TOPOGRID/ridge steps, further enforcing the NED to NHD

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Final Pre-processing Steps

  • Use the drainage enforced elevation grid to produce the flow direction and flow accumulation grids (then discard the drainage enforced elevation grid)

  • Use the ‘WATERSHED’ command to delineate a catchment for every NHD reach in the dendrite coverage

  • Load the appropriate datasets into a standardized ‘NHD Watershed’ directory

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How NHD Watershed Works

  • The user selects a point on a reach

  • NHD Navigate determines all upstream reaches from that point (including the partial reach segment of the selected reach)

  • A relate is performed between reaches and catchments to select all upstream catchments

  • A partial catchment is determined within the selected reach catchment

  • The partial catchment is combined with selected upstream catchments and internal boundaries are dissolved

  • Attribution of the newly delineated watershed includes the reach code and measure of the user selected point

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NHD Watershed Fun Facts

  • Is an ArcView 3x extension

  • Is designed to work with NHD and the NHD ArcView Toolkit

  • For full functionality the user needs Spatial Analyst (a ‘watershed for confluences only’ option can be used without Spatial Analyst)

  • The extension, pre-processing instructions, list of available HUCs, and other related info is available on the NHD website: http://nhd.usgs.gov, under ‘Applications’

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NHD Watershed Characteristics: Objectives

  • A generic extension which helps guide users to summarize basin characteristics of choice for newly delineated watersheds

  • Built on top of NHD Watershed

  • An open, well documented script environment for users to modify as needed

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NHD Watershed Characteristics (cont.)

  • Designed as a transition tool from the general NHD Watershed environment to the specific user application environment

  • Not yet available on the NHD website

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  • Vermont Flood Frequency project

  • New Hampshire Low Flow project

  • Massachusetts Perennial / Intermittent Streams project

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Vermont Flood Frequency

  • USGS NH District cooperative effort with VT Department of Transportation

  • Regression equation estimates of peak flow for any point on any stream in Vermont

  • The entire state has been processed for use in the NHD ArcView Toolkit

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New Hampshire Low Flow

  • USGS NH District cooperative effort with the State’s Geological Survey

  • Seasonal and annual statistics for:

    • Ground water recharge

    • Low flow

  • Hydro-climatic data (PRISM) used extensively as a source for significant seasonal predictors including: temperature, snow fall, and precipitation

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Massachusetts Perennial / Intermittent Project

  • Needed by Mass. DEP for regulatory purposes in enforcing the State’s River Protection Act of 1996

  • A logistic regression equation has been developed to determine these points

  • The NHD Watershed and NHD Watershed Characteristics tools are being used in batch mode to find these points and map them

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Watershed Characteristics

  • Basin area

  • Percent area of stratified-drift (sand and gravel) deposits

  • Drainage density (length of streams / drainage area)

  • Mean basin elevation

  • Percent area of forested land

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In the works….

  • Considering the transition of the NHD Watershed and NHD Watershed Characteristics extensions to the NHDinGeo environment along with other NHD Toolkit functions

  • Working with NHD Watershed preprocessed datasets in the ArcHydro global tools environment