Managing a power system with 40 wind
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Managing a Power System with 40% Wind. Dr Alan Rogers EirGrid. Outline. Current Situation Case study: August 26 th 2009 > 40% Wind Power System Stability System Stability Tools Conclusions. Current Status. Oct 2009: 1119MW of wind generation connected

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Presentation Transcript

Outline l.jpg
Outline

  • Current Situation

  • Case study: August 26th 2009 > 40% Wind

  • Power System Stability

  • System Stability Tools

  • Conclusions


Current status l.jpg
Current Status

  • Oct 2009: 1119MW of wind generation connected

  • End of 2009: 1250MW installed

  • End of 2010: 1600MW installed

  • Minimum Generation (August 2009): 1632MW exported

  • Expected Winter Peak Load 2009: 4750MW

  • Current Maximum Wind Generation: 999MW

  • Rapidly moving towards:

    • 50% instantaneous wind penetration

    • 33% capacity penetration (Installed Wind MW / Peak MW)



Hourly wind variability increased wind needs more flexible conventional plant l.jpg

On this day, wind peaked at 750MW and dropped by 370MW in one hour

Hourly Wind VariabilityIncreased Wind needs more flexible conventional plant


Case study august 26 th 2009 3 45am 40 wind l.jpg
Case Study one hourAugust 26th 2009 3:45am > 40% Wind

  • Wind generation now regularly exceeds 40% of demand

  • Highest wind penetration in the world on a synchronous system

  • Occurs during night valleys, when demand is at its lowest

  • Conventional Generation Dispatch must be carefully managed

    • Geographical spread of generation for voltage control

    • Certain amount of flexible plant to cope with sudden changes in wind (e.g. hydro)

    • Large machines to provide inertia, synchronizing torque, and short-circuit power

  • Approximate Dispatch on August 26th:

    • 870MW Wind

    • 850MW Large conventional machines at minimum load

    • 200MW Peat / Hydro / Small-scale Gas


Change in dispatch from low to high wind l.jpg

1 x MP min HNC min one hour

2 x TB min HN2 min

PBCCGT min 3 x TH pumping

Change in Dispatch from Low to High Wind


Case study control issues l.jpg

Wind MW fluctuations make jitter amplitude larger one hour PQ issue / freq control issue

Normal fluctuations in demand cause frequency jitter

Case Study – Control Issues

  • Wind generation peaked at 880MW on August 26th

  • 30MW of non-firm wind was curtailed in South-West

  • NCC expected severe contingencies in North-West, so SONI agreed to import 20MW at both Strabane and Enniskillen to alleviate contingencies



System stability tools l.jpg
System Stability Tools one hour

  • Online Wind Security Assessment Tool (WSAT) in development: Real-time Analysis (every 30mins)

    • Transient Stability Analysis – Full Dynamic Simulation

      • Faults at every bus / Tripping of large machines / Relay Actions

      • Does the system remain as one synchronous area?

      • Do any machines trip unexpectedly?

    • Voltage Stability Analysis (Margin to Voltage Collapse / N-1 Contingencies)

      • Voltages in range / Overloads / Voltage Collapse

    • Frequency Stability

      • How low will frequency go / frequency recovery / system inertia ?

  • Damping Monitor Relay

    • Analyzing low frequency modes 0.001Hz – 99Hz

    • Oscillatory Events / Magnitudes / Damping / Duration

    • Any systemic change in behaviour with high wind penetration?


System security august 26th l.jpg
System Security: August 26th one hour

  • Voltage Security Assessment – extra 500MW wind could be accomodated before voltage collapse / unsolved loadflow

    • Yellow region means secure but with some overloads if certain lines trip

  • Transient Security Assessment showed that a large generator trip would cause a frequency drop to about 49.3 Hz

    • This is normal. No other problems were flagged

  • No stability problem with 40% instantaneous wind during SNV as far as we can tell

    • Key limitations: Thermal Limits / Conventional Plant Constraints


Conclusions l.jpg
Conclusions one hour

  • 40% instantaneous wind becoming more common

  • Change in Dispatch / System Behaviour

    • Flexible Generation Requirements

    • Extensive dynamic simulations required

  • Power System Stability Tools

    • WSAT

    • Damping Monitor

  • 2020: 37% Average Wind Energy

    • Very high instantaneous penetration in theory (70/80%)

    • Careful study of stability limits will be required