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Chemical Formulas, and Nomenclature ch 9

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Chemical Formulas, and Nomenclature ch 9. Oxidation Numbers of Monatomic Ions (On periodic table handout). 0. 1+. 2+. 3+. 4+. 2-. 3-. 1-. most 2+, but varies. Oxidation Numbers and formulas p 66.

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slide1

Chemical Formulas,

and

Nomenclature ch 9

oxidation numbers of monatomic ions on periodic table handout
Oxidation Numbers of Monatomic Ions (On periodic table handout)

0

1+

2+

3+

4+

2-

3-

1-

most 2+,

but varies

oxidation numbers and formulas p 66
Oxidation Numbers and formulas p 66
  • Warm up: what does oxidation # tell us about the valence electrons of that atom?
  • Transition elements have more than one oxidation #, determined by a roman numeral.

EX: iron (II) is Fe+2

iron (III) is Fe+3

polyatomic ions p66
Polyatomic Ions p66
  • are made up of two or more atoms.
  • Polyatomic ions generally have the following endings: “ate” or “ite”
oxidation numbers formulas p66
Oxidation Numbers & Formulas p66
  • The sum of the oxidation numbers in a compound must equal zero.

EX: CaCl2 = Ca+2 + Cl- + Cl-

2 positive charges –

2 negative charges = 0

writing ionic formulas p66
Writing Ionic Formulas p66
  • the cation ( positive metal ion) is always written before the anion (negative nonmetal ion).

There is only one polyatomic cation: NH4+

criss cross method of writing formulas p66
Criss Cross Method of Writing Formulas p66
  • Ex. Write the formula for Aluminum and Oxygen:

Al +3 and O-2

Al and O

Al2O3

criss cross method of writing formulas p661
Criss Cross Method of Writing Formulas p66

EX:Lead (II) & Phosphate

Pb+2 and PO4 -3

Pb and PO4

Pb3(PO4)2

nomenclature p68
Nomenclature p68
  • Warm up: how do you use the criss cross method to write a formula?
  • Let’s take a look!
naming binary ionic compounds 2 elements p68
Naming Binary Ionic Compounds (2 elements) p68

1. Name of cation (metal) is given first. The name is the same as the element.

2. Name of anion(nonmetal) is given last. The name is the same as the element, but with an “ide” ending.

naming ionic compounds p68
Naming Ionic Compounds p68

EX: Al2O3

Aluminum oxide

cation anion

naming ternary ionic compounds p68
Naming Ternary Ionic Compounds p68
  • Compounds containing a polyatomic ion.

1. Cation rule from binary applies.

2. Anion takes the name of the polyatomic ion as found on the table.

EX: Al2(SO4)3

Aluminum sulfate

EX: Mg(OH)2

Magnesium hydroxide

transition metals in formulas p68
Transition metals in formulas p68
  • Remember: they can make 2 charges.
  • Use roman numeral in name.
  • Ex: CrCl2

Chromium(II) chloride

Ex: CuCO3

Copper(II) Carbonate

naming ionic compounds
Naming Ionic Compounds

EX: AgCl is __________________

Silver chloride

HgO is ___________________

Mercury (II) oxide

CaBr2 is ___________________

Calcium bromide

Cu2O is ___________________

Copper (I) oxide

naming ionic compounds1
Naming Ionic Compounds

EX: SnCO3 is ____________________

Tin(II) carbonate

Co(OH)2 is ___________________

Cobalt (II) hydroxide

Zn(NO3)2 is __________________

Zinc nitrate

KClO3 is ___________________

Potassium chlorate

naming binary molecular compounds p70
Naming Binary Molecular compounds p70
  • Warm up: why does Cobalt (II) hydroxide have a roman numeral in its name?
  • Name the following compound:
  • Ba(Na)2

Banana!

naming binary molecular compounds p701
Naming Binary Molecular Compounds p70
  • Composed of two nonmetals
  • Prefixes are used
naming binary molecular compounds p702
Naming Binary Molecular Compounds p70
  • Say name of 1st element. If there is more than one, give it a prefix.
  • Say the name of second element and change ending to –ide. Always give it a prefix.

3. The o or a at the end of a prefix is dropped when the element begins with another vowel.

EX: monoxide or pentoxide

naming binary molecular compoundsp70
Naming Binary Molecular Compoundsp70

EX: P4O3

*tetraphosphorus trioxide

EX: NO

*nitrogen monoxide

naming binary molecular compounds
Naming Binary Molecular Compounds

EX: SO3 is ____________________

Sulfur trioxide

PBr5 is ____________________

Phosphorus pentabromide

ICl3 is _____________________

Iodine trichloride

H20 is _____________________

Dihydrogen monoxide

naming binary molecular compounds1
Naming Binary Molecular Compounds

EX: NH3 is ____________________

nitrogen trihydride

N2O3 is ____________________

dinitrogen trioxide

CO is _____________________

carbon monoxide

P2O5 is _____________________

diphosphorouspentaoxide

naming acids bases p 72
Naming Acids& Bases p 72
  • Warm up: what do you know about acids?
  • Acids are molecular compounds that have a Hydrogen atom bonded to an anion. (H-anion)
  • Anions can be elements, ending: “-ide”
  • H + element:  “hydro” -stem “-ic” acid
  • Ex) HBr=hydrobromic acid
naming acids p72
Naming acids p72
  • Anions can be polyatomics,ending: ”-ite, -ate”
  • H + polyatomic (-ate) -stem “-ic” acid
  • Ex) H3PO4= phosphoric acid
  • H + polyatomic (-ite) -stem “-ous” acid
  • Ex) H2SO3= sulfurous acid
naming acids p 71
Naming acids p 71
  • HBr __________________________

hydrobromic acid

  • H2SO4 _____________________________________

sulfuric acid

  • HNO2 _____________________________________

nitrous acid

  • H3PO4 _____________________________________

phosphoric acid

  • H2CO3 ____________________________________

carbonic acid

  • HCl ____________________________

hydrochloric acid

formulas of acids p71
Formulas of acids p71
  • Nitric acid_______________________

HNO3

  • Acetic acid_______________________

HC2H3O2

  • Hydrofluoric acid_________________

HF

  • Sulfurous acid___________________

H2SO3

  • Hydrochloric acid_________________

HCl

naming bases p72
Naming Bases p72
  • Say the name of the first element, then add “hydroxide” to end.
  • Ex) LiOH- lithium hydroxide
  • Ex) Mg(OH)2- magnesium hydroxide
molecular and empirical formulas
Molecular and Empirical Formulas
  • The formulas for compounds that exist as molecules are called molecular formulas.

EX: Hydrogen peroxide, H2O2, consists of two H atoms and two O atoms.

  • The atomic ratio of hydrogen peroxide is one to one.
  • The simplest formula that would indicate this ratio would be HO. This simple formula is an empirical formula.
slide30

MORONIC ACID

  • CRAPINON