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  1. Audit Approaches

  2. Types of Audit Approaches the substantive procedures approach the balance sheet approach the systems-based approach the risk-based approach.

  3. Substantive Procedure Approach This is also referred to as the vouching approach or the direct verification approach. In this approach, audit resources are targeted on testing large volumes of transactions and account balances without any particular focus on specified areas of the financial statements.

  4. Balance Sheet Approach In this approach, substantive procedures are focused on balance sheet (statement of financial position) accounts, with only very limited procedures being carried out on income statement/profit and loss account items. The justification for this approach is the notion that a risk-based approach to auditing financial statements is that if the relevant management assertions for all balance sheet (statement of financial position) accounts are tested and verified, then the profit/loss figure reported for the accounting period will not be materially misstated.

  5. The System-Based Approach This approach requires auditors to assess the effectiveness of the internal controls of an entity, and then to direct substantive procedures primarily to those areas where it is considered that systems objectives will not be met. Reduced testing is carried out in those areas where it is considered systems objectives will be met.

  6. Risk-Based Approach In this approach, audit resources are directed towards those areas of the financial statements that may contain misstatements (either by error or omission) as a consequence of the risks faced by the business.

  7. Audit Risk

  8. Attestation Risk and Audit Risk Attestation Risk – the probability that an attestor may unknowingly fail to modify a written conclusion about an assertion that is materially misstated. Audit risk – the probability that an auditor may unknowingly fail to modify an opinion on financial statements that are materially misstated.

  9. Categories of Risks financial risks – such as cash flow risks compliance risks – such as breaching of laws and regulations risk operational risks – such as loss of key, employee risk and loss of data risk.

  10. Financial Risk • Inherent Risk – • on the auditor: that the account contains errors that could be material when combined with errors in other accounts • On the accounts: susceptibility of an account balance to error that could be material, assuming there is no related internal control (ex. Cash, technology) • Control risk – the likelihood that error could occur and not be prevented or detected by internal controls. • Detection Risk – the likelihood that error could occur and not be detected by the auditor’s procedures.