Grouping WordNet Senses How can you tell the senses apart? In which cases should senses be merged? In which cases should they be kept separate?
WN senses for the verb ‘live’ 1. dwell, shack, reside, live, inhabit, people, populate, domicile, domiciliate -- (make one's home or live in; "I live in a 200-year old house”)2. live -- (lead a certain kind of life; live in a certain style; "we had to live frugally after the war")3. survive, last, live, live on, go, endure, hold up, hold out -- ("The racecar driver lived through several very serious accidents")4. exist, survive, live, subsist -- (support oneself, "Can you live on $2000 a month in New York City?) 5. be, live -- (have life, be alive; "Our great leader is no more"; "My grandfather lived until the end of war")6. know, experience, live -- (have firsthand knowledge of states, situations, emotions, or sensations; "I lived through two divorces")7. live -- (pursue a positive and satisfying existence; "You must accept yourself and others if you really want to live")
Grouped senses for ‘live’ GROUP 1: WN2, WN7 (live a certain style, pursue a positive existence) We had to live frugally after the war non-agentive intransitive You must accept yourself and others if you really want to live GROUP 2: WN3, WN4, WN5 (survive, support oneself, have life) Can you live on $2000 a month in New York City? ?agentive The racecar driver lived through several very serious accidents My grandfather lived until the end of war SINGLETON: WN1 (reside) "I live in a 200-year old house” non-agentive with a locative PP SINGLETON: WN6 (experience) “I lived through two divorces'‘ non-agentive transitive
WN senses for the verb ‘learn’ 1. learn, larn, acquire -- (acquire or gain knowledge or skills; "She learned dancing from her sister"; "I learned Sanskrit"; "Children acquire language at an amazing rate")2. learn, hear, get word, get wind, pick up, find out, get a line, discover, see -- (get to know or become aware of, usually accidentally; "I learned that she has two grown-up children"; "I see that you have been promoted")3. memorize, memorise, con, learn -- (commit to memory; learn by heart; "Have you memorized your lines for the play yet?")4. learn, study, read, take -- (be a student of a certain subject; "She is reading for the bar exam")5. teach, learn, instruct -- (impart skills or knowledge to; "I taught them French"; "He instructed me in building a boat")6. determine, check, find out, see, ascertain, watch, learn -- (find out, learn, or determine with certainty, usually by making an inquiry or other effort; "I want to see whether she speaks French"; "See whether it works"; "find out if he speaks Russian"; "Check whether the train leaves on time")
Grouped senses for ‘learn’ GROUP 1: WN1, WN3 (acquire a skill, commit to memory) “She learned dancing from her sister“ agentive, telic “Have you learned your lines?” GROUP 2: WN2, WN6 (find out) “I learned that she has two grown-up children“ telic SINGLETON: WN4 (be a student) “She is reading for the bar exam” agentive, atelic SINGLETON: WN5 (teach) causative, agentive
Which criteria should be used for distinguishing grouped senses? MERGE AS ONE GROUP: differences in syntactic alternations differences in syntactic type of arguments differences in selectional restrictions (except for agentivity) DO NOT MERGE: - differences in entailments differences in the type of events (e.g. physical vs. abstract) differences with respect to agentivity
Causative Alternation Causative/inchoative senses are grouped as one sense. (1) John opened the door (2) The door opened (3) The wind opened the door Group 1: cause to become open Alternating sentences are usually related to each other by means of entailment, for example, the sentences in (1) and (3) entail the sentence in (2).
Detransitivization Transitive and detransitivized uses of the verbs are merged as one sense (1) John is eating an apple (2) John is eating Note that the sentence in (1) entails the sentence in (2)
Verbs of Motion Verbs of manner of motion and verbs of directed motion are merged as one sense (1) John ran (for an hour) (2) John ran into the store In this example, the sentence in (2) entails the sentence in (1).
Syntactic Type of Arguments If senses differ only with respect to the syntactic type of arguments, they should be merged • He told me about the promotion • He told me that you had been promoted
Semantic Classes of Arguments • If senses differ only in the semantic class of one of the arguments, they should be merged 6. play, spiel -- (replay (as a melody); "Play it again, Sam"; "She played the third movement very beautifully") 7. play -- (perform music on (a musical instrument); "He plays the flute"; "Can you play on this old recorder?")
Semantic Classes of Arguments: Agentivity • Do not merge senses which differ in agentivity Serve: Group 1: function (His freedom served him well) Group 2: work (He served in Congress)
Differences in Entailments Do not merge senses with different entailments: Appear: Group 1: come into existence Homo sapiens appeared millions of years ago Group 2: come into sight, view He suddenly appeared at the wedding
Semantic Type of Events Do not merge senses which are distinguished by the type of an event, such as physical perception vs. an abstract or mental perception. Concrete/abstract distinction Group 1: Perceive by sight (Can you see the bird?) Group 2: Witness, learn (I see that you have been promoted)
Assignment: Group Verbs,based on WordNet senses • Draw • Walk • Pull • Worry • Appear • Break or Open Provide the sense groupings with the criteria that characterizes them. Due 9/27