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  1. Chapter Resources 20 Click on one of the following icons to go to that resource. gpscience.com Image Bank Foldables Video Clips and Animations Chapter Summary Chapter Review Questions Standardized Test Practice

  2. Chapter Resources 5 gpscience.com

  3. Image Bank 20 Click on individual thumbnail images to view larger versions.

  4. Image Bank 20 Transfer Images • To transfer images to your own power point follow the following steps: • Open the “Resource” file from the CD-ROM disc – view the file in the “normal view” or “slide sorter view” mode - go to slide #2 – from there you can click through the images and follow these instructions. Click once on the image. • Copy the image • Go to your own power point document • Paste the image.

  5. Image Bank 20 Statue of Liberty

  6. Image Bank 20 Statue of Liberty and Copper Penny

  7. Image Bank 20 Salt Shaker

  8. Image Bank 20 Sodium Chloride

  9. Image Bank 20 Table – Some Familiar Compounds

  10. Image Bank 20 Noble Gas Diagrams

  11. Image Bank 20 Hydrogen

  12. Image Bank 20 Helium

  13. Image Bank 20 Electron Distribution

  14. Image Bank 20 Energy Levels

  15. Image Bank 20 Hydrogen Oxygen Bond

  16. Image Bank 20 Salt and Toothpaste

  17. Image Bank 20 Potassium and Iodine Bonds

  18. Image Bank 20 Magnesium Chlorine

  19. Image Bank 20 Covalently Bonded Water

  20. Image Bank 20 Multiple Bonds

  21. Image Bank 20 Polar Covalent

  22. Image Bank 20 Polarity of Water

  23. Image Bank 20 Electrons in Periodic Table Group

  24. Image Bank 20 Table – Special Ions

  25. Image Bank 20 Table – Elements in Binary Compounds

  26. Image Bank 20 Baking Soda

  27. Image Bank 20 Table Polyatomic Ions

  28. Image Bank 20 Table – Naming Complex Compounds

  29. Image Bank 20 Water Changes Powder

  30. Image Bank 20 Table – Prefixes for Covalent Compounds

  31. Image Bank 20 Ionic Bonding

  32. Image Bank 20 Model of Water

  33. Image Bank 20 NaCl Equation

  34. Image Bank 20 Sodium Chloride

  35. Foldables 20 Chemical Formulas Every compound has a chemical formula that tells exactly which elements are present in that compound and exactly how many atoms of each element are present in that compound. Make the following foldable to help identify the chemical formulas from this chapter.

  36. Foldables 20 Fold a vertical sheet of notebook paper from side to side.

  37. Foldables 20 Cut along every third line of only the top layer to form tabs.

  38. Foldables 20 Label each tab.

  39. Foldables 20 Read and Write Go through the chapter, find ten chemical formulas, and write them on the front of the tabs. As you read the chapter, write what compound each formula represents under the appropriate tab.

  40. Video Clips and Animations 20 Click image to play movie To view the next video clip or animation click here.

  41. Video Clips and Animations 20 Click image to play movie

  42. Reviewing Main Ideas 20.1 Stability in Bonding • The properties of compounds are generally different from the properties of the elements they contain. • A chemical formula for a compound indicates the composition of a unit of the compound.

  43. Reviewing Main Ideas 20.1 Stability in Bonding • Chemical bonding occurs because atoms of most elements become more stable by gaining, losing, or sharing electrons in order to obtain a stable outer energy level.

  44. Reviewing Main Ideas 20.2 Types of Bonds • Ionic bonds between atoms are formed by the attraction between ions. Covalent bonds are formed by the sharing of electrons. • Ionic bonding occurs between charged particles called ions and produces ionic compounds. Covalent bonding produces units called molecules and occurs between nonmetallic elements.

  45. Reviewing Main Ideas 20.2 Types of Bonds • The unequal sharing of electrons produces compounds that contain polar bonds, and the equal sharing of electrons produces nonpolar compounds.

  46. Reviewing Main Ideas 20.3 Writing Formulas and Naming Compounds • An oxidation number indicates how many electrons an atom has gained, lost, or shared when bonding with other atoms. • In the formula of an ionic compound, the element or ion with the positive oxidation number is written first, followed by the one with the negative oxidation number.

  47. Reviewing Main Ideas 20.3 Writing Formulas and Naming Compounds • The name of a binary compound is derived from the names of the two elements that compose the compound. Salt is an example of a binary compound. • A hydrate is a compound that has water chemically attached to its ions and written into its formula.

  48. Reviewing Main Ideas 20.3 Writing Formulas and Naming Compounds • Greek prefixes are used in the names of covalent compounds. These indicate the number of each atom present.

  49. Chapter Review 20 Question 1 What are the three ways atoms form chemical bonds?

  50. Chapter Review 20 Answer Atoms can gain, share, or lose electrons in order to form the chemical bonds of compounds.