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Keystone Biology term Review. Mrs. Geisler 6-5-14. A term that describes a nonliving factor in an ecosystem. ABIOTIC.

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The movement of particles from one area of low concentration to an area of high concentration that uses energy provided by ATP or a difference in electrical charges across a cell membrane.

ACTIVE TRANSPORT

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A molecule that provides energy for cellular reactions and processes and that also releases energy when one of its high-energy bonds is broken to release a phosphate group.

ADENOSONE TRIPHOSPHATE (ATP)

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The intermolecular attraction between unlike molecules. Capillary action results from the adhesive properties of water and the molecules that make up plant cells.

ADHESION

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The artificial cultivation of food, fiber, and other foods by the systematic growing and harvesting of various organisms.

AGRICULTURE

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The measure of the relative frequency of an allele at a genetic locus in a population; a proportion or a percentage.

ALLELE FREQUENCY

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a physical structure, present in multiple species, that is similar in function but different in form and inheritance.

ANALOGOUS STRUCTURE

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The movement of abiotic factors between the living and nonliving components within ecosystems; also known as nutrient cycles. (water cycle, carbon cycle, oxygen cycle, nitrogen cycle).

BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES

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A group of bio macromolecules that interact with biological systems and their environments.

BIOLOGYICAL MACROMOLECULES

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A large area or geographical region with distinct plant and animal groups adapted to that environment.

BIOME

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Any procedure or methodology that uses biological systems or living organisms to develop or modify either products or processes for specific use. Commonly associated with genetic engineering, which is one of it's applications.

BIOTECHNOLOGY

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a macromolecule that contains atoms of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a 1-2-1 ratio and serves as a major source of energy for living organisms. (sugar, starch, cellulose)

CARBOHYDRATE

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Proteins embedded in the plasma membrane involved in the movement of ions, small molecules, and macromolecules into and out of cells.

CARRIER (TRANSPORT) PROTEIN

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Series of events that take place in a cell leading to its division and duplication. Main phases are interphase, nuclear division, and cytokinesis.

CELL CYCLE

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complex set of chemical reactions involving an energy transformation where potential chemical energy in the bonds of "food" molecules is released and partially captured in the bonds of ATP molecules.

CELLULAR RESPIRATION

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A single piece of coiled DNA and associated proteins found in linear forms in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells and circular forms in the cytoplasm in prokaryotic cells; contains genes that encode traits.

CHROMOSOME

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a pattern of inheritance in which the phenotypic effect of two alleles in a heterozygous genotype express each phenotype of each allele fully and equally. Not expressed in any other gene combination.

CO-DOMINANCE

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Intermolecular attraction between like molecules. Surface tension results from the cohesive properties of water.

COHESION

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Individuals or groups of organisms compete for similar resources such as territory, mates, water, and food in the same environment.

COMPETITION

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The measure of the amount or proportion of a given substance when combined with another substance.

CONCENTRATION

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the graduated difference in concentration of a solute per unit distance through a solution.

CONCENTRATION GRADIENT

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Organism that obtains nutrients by consuming dead and decaying organic matter which allows nutrients to be accessible to other organisms.

DECOMPOSER

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Movement of particles from an area of high to low concentration; result of kinetic molecular energy.

DIFFUSION

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pattern or inheritance in which the phenotypic event of one allele is completely expressed within a homozygous and heterozygous genotype.

DOMINANT INHERITANCE

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species found in its originating location and is generally restricted to that geographic area.

ENDEMIC SPECIES

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Process in which a cell engulfs extracellular material through an inward folding of its plasma membrane.

ENDOCYTOSIS

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organelle, containing folded membrane and sacs, responsible for production processing and transporting materials for use inside and outside a eukaryotic cell. Two forms, rough has surface ribosomes and participates in the synthesis of proteins destined for export by cell, and smooth er that has no ribosomes and participates in the synthesis of lipids and steroids as well as the transport of synthesized macromolecules.

ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM

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A theorized process in which early eukaryotic cells were formed from simpler prokaryotes.

ENDOSYMBIOSIS

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Illustrates the biomass productivity at multiple trophic levels in a given ecosystem.

ENERGY PYRAMID

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A process in which energy changes from one form to another form which some of the energy is lost to the environment.

ENERGY TRANSFORMATION

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type of organism composed of one or more cells containing a membrane bound nucleus, specialized organelles in the cytoplasm, and a mitotic nuclear division cycle.

EUKARYOTE

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Cell releases substances to the extracellular environment by fusing a vesicular membrane with the plasma membrane separating the membrane at the point of fusion and allowing the substance to get released.

EXOCYTOSIS

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substances are transported across a plasma membrane with the concentration gradient with the aid of carrier proteins; doesn't require the use of energy.

FACILITATED DIFFUSION

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Chain is simplified illustrating energy flow and a web is a complex arrangement of food chains.

FOOD CHAIN VS. FOOD WEB

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addition or removal of one or more nucleotides that is not indivisible by three, therefore resulting in a completely different amino acid sequence than would be normal. the earlier it's done, the more altered the protein will be.

FRAME SHIFT MUTATION

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intentional insertion, alteration, or deletion of genes in an individual's cells and tissues for the purpose of treating a disease

GENE THERAPY

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technology that includes the process of manipulating or altering the genetic material of a cell resulting in desirable functions or outcomes that wouldn't occur naturally.

GENETIC ENGINEERING

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organism whose genetic material has been altered through some genetic engineering technology or technique.

GENETICALLY MODIFIED ORGANISM

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organelle found in eukaryotic cells responsible for the final stages of processing proteins for release by cell.

GOLGI APPARATUS

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a characteristic in different organisms inherited by a common ancestor.

HOMOLOGOUS STRUCTURE

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longest lasting phase, majority of functions performed, preparing for nuclear division and cytokinesis.

INTERPHASE

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inside a cell

INTRACELLULAR

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limits the existence, growth, abundance, or distribution of an individual organism or population.

LIMITING FACTOR

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group of organic compounds composed mostly of carbon and hydrogen including a proportionately smaller amount of oxygen. insoluble in water, serve as source of stored energy, component of cell membrane.

LIPIDS

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polymer with high molecular mass. within organisms there are four main groups, carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids.

MACROMOLECULES

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two phase nuclear division that results in the eventual production of gametes with half the normal number o chromosomes.

MEIOSIS

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molecule of any compound that can react with other molecules of the same or different compound to form a polymer

MONOMER

slide68

process in which sister chromatids fail to separate during and after mitosis or meiosis.

NONDISJUNCTION

slide69

movement of water or another solvent through a permeable membrane from an area of higher water concentration (dilute) to an area of lower water concentration (concentrated).

OSMOSIS

slide70

thin phospholipid and protein molecule bilayer that encapsulates a cell and controls the movement of materials in and out of the cell through active or passive transport.

PLASMA MEMBRANE

slide71

group of membrane bound organelles commonly found in photosynthetic organisms and mainly responsible for the synthesis and storage of food.

PLASTIDS

slide72

single base substitution causing the replacement of a single base nucleotide with another nucleotide

POINT MUTATION

slide73

trait in which the phenotype is controlled by two or more genes at different loci on different chromosomes.

POLYGENIC TRAIT

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organism that uses a primary energy source to conduct photosynthesis or chemosynthesis

PRODUCER

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macromolecule that contains the principal components of organisms; carbon hydrogen oxygen and nitrogen; preforms a variety of structural and regulatory functions for cells.

PROTEIN

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process in which amino acids are arranged in linear sequence through the processes of transcription of DNA to RNA and the translation of RNA to a polypeptide chain.

PROTEIN SYNTHESIS

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molecular mechanism in which ions or molecules are transported across a cellular membrane requiring the use of an energy source.

PUMPS

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cellular structure composed of RNA and proteins that is the site of protein synthesis in eukaryotic and prokaryotic cell.

RIBOSOME

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process in which the DNA molecule uncoils separates into two strands. the original strands become templates to make a new strand resulting in two DNA molecules just like the original.

SEMICONSERVATIVE REPLICATION

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set of interacting or interdependent components real or abstract that form an integrated whole. open can interact with the environment. closed is isolated.

SYSTEM

slide86

process in which a strand of messenger ran is synthesized by using the genetic information found on a strand dna as a template

TRANSCRIPTION

slide87

process in which a segment of a chromosome breaks off and attaches to another chromosome

TRANSLOCATION

slide88

position of an organism in relation to the flow of energy and inorganic nutrients through an ecosystem (producer, consumer, decomposer)

TROPHIC LEVEL

slide89

physical characteristic in organism that appears to have lost its original function as a species changed over time.

VESTIGIAL STRUCTURE