WMO Intercomparison of Instruments and Methods for the Measurement of Solid Precipitation and Snow on the Ground (WMO SPICE) Organization of the Experiment. CIMO-TECO Brussels, Oct 16 th , 2012.
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WMO Intercomparison of Instruments and Methodsfor the Measurement of Solid Precipitationand Snow on the Ground (WMO SPICE)Organization of the Experiment CIMO-TECO Brussels, Oct 16th, 2012
Rodica Nitu (1), O Aulamo(13), B Baker(3), M Earle(1)B Goodison((15) J Hoover (1) J Hendrikx (10) , P. Joe(1)J Kochendorfer (3), E Lanzinger (4) , H Liang(6), L Lanza(12), S Landolt(2), R. Rasmussen(2) , Y.A. Roulet (5),C Smith(7),, A Samanter (1), F Sabatini(8), E Vuerich(11), V Vuglinsky(14) , M Wolff(9), D Yang(7) (1) Environment Canada, 4905 Dufferin St, Toronto, Canada, Rodica.firstname.lastname@example.org(2) National Center for Atmospheric Research, 3450 Mitchell Lane, Boulder, CO USA (3) NOAA Air Resources Laboratory, 456 S. Illinois Ave, Oak Ridge, TN, 37830(4)Deutscher Wetterdienst, Frahmredder 95, 22393 Hamburg, Germany(5)Météo Suisse, Station Aérologique, Case postale 316, CH-1530 PAYERNE, Switzerland(6)China Meteorological Administration, No. 46 Zhongguacun, Nandajie, BEIJING 100081, China(7)Environment Canada, 11 Innovation Boulevard, Saskatoon, SK S7N 3H5, Canada (8) CNR-IBIMET, Institute of Biometeorology, Via Giovanni Caproni, 8, 50145 Florence, Italy(9)Norwegian Meteorological Institute, P.O. Box 43 Blindern, Henrik Mohns plass 1, 0313 Oslo, Norway(10)Montana State University, Bozeman, Montana, 59717-3480, U.S.A.(11) Italian Met Service – Air Force, Centre of Meteorological Experimentations, Via Braccianese Claudia, km 20,100 00062 Vigna di Valle (Rome) Italy(12) DICAT - Department of Civil, Environmental and Territorial Engineering, University of Genoa , GENOVA Italy (13) Finnish Meteorological Institute, Arctic Research Centre, Sodankyla(14) State Hydrological institute, 2nd Line 23, St.Petersburg, 199053, Russian Federation(15) WMO, EC-PORS, GCOS, 7 bis, avenue de la Paix, CH 1211 Geneva 2, Switzerland
SPICE Mission In consultation with stakeholders (Commission Hydrology, CAgM, World Climate Research Program – WG on Nowcasting, the Remote Sensing community, GCOS, EC-PORS, National Meteorological Services), it was agreed that SPICE will focus on: • recommending appropriate field reference system(s) using automatic gauges, for the unattended measurement of solid precipitation ; • providing guidance on the performance of automated systems measuring: • (i) total precipitation amount, especially when the precipitation is solid; • (ii) snowfall (height of newly fallen snow) and snow depth (snow on the ground). • understanding and documenting the differences between : • a field reference system using an automatic gauge and different automatic systems,; • automatic and manual measurements of solid precipitation, including siting, shielding, and configuration.
WMO SPICE • WMO SPICE: a multi-site coordinated assessments of automatic instruments to measure solid precipitation. • The migration from human to automatic observations: challenges with respect to the quality and continuity of hydro-meteorological measurements. • Will investigate the measurement and reporting of precipitation amount, snow on the ground (snow depth), snowfall: • over various time periods (minutes, hours, days, seasons), • as a function of precipitation phase; • will address the linkages between snow on the ground and snowfall. • Evaluate new and emerging technology for the measurement of solid precipitation and their potential for use in operational applications.
DFIR vs. DFAR • The 1987-1994 WMO Solid Precipitation Intercomparison (WMO/TD-No. 872 (1998)) defined the DFIR (Double Fence International Reference) as the complete system: the octagonal double-fence (DFIR-fence) and the Tretyakov gauge+shield placed in its centre. • To differentiate from the complete DFIR system, the IOC decided to: • Use the term DFIR-fence when referring to the octagonal double fence only. • Use the term Double Fence Automatic Reference (DFAR): a field reference configuration using an automatic gauge (model not prescribed) in the centre of the octagonal double-fence.
Intercomparison Sites • 15 sites in 11 countries; • Will include: • Recommended field reference systems • Instruments under test • From Instrument Providers • Provided by the SPICE host (of interest for national applications) • Ancillary measurements;
Participating Instruments: Heated Tipping Buckets AdolfThies GmbH&Co KG Precipitation Transmitter Meteoservis v.o.s & ZAMG MR3H-FC CAE S. p. A PMB25R Hydrological Services America TBH/TBH-LP MTX s.r.l FAK015AA Environmental Measurements Ltd. UPG1000 Snow Hydro Limited TB3
Participating Instruments: Weighing Gauges Snow Hydro Limited All-Weather Precipitation Gauge - NOAH II Belfort Instrument Company 36000-1DDH Meteoservis v.o.s MRW500 MPS Systems TRwS204 GEONOR AS T-200B3 (600 mm) OTT Hydromet GmbH Pluvio2 200cm2 NIMH Bulgaria Sutron TPG-0001 GEONOR AS T-200BM3 (1500mm)
Participating Instruments: Non-Catchment type Instruments AdolfThies GmbH&Co KG Laser Precipitation Monitor OTT Hydromet GmbH PARSIVEL2 Droplet Measurement Technologies Meteorological Particle Sensor Campbell Scientific PWS100
Participating Instruments: Snow Depth and SWE Instruments Campbell Scientific SR50ATH-316SS Felix Technologies SL300 ESW GmbH Jenoptik Hydrological Services America: Sommer GmbH & Co KG USH-8 Snow Water Equivalent Campbell Scientific CS725
SPICE Data Protocol • Establishes the division of responsibilities regarding the data and results; • Signed by all participants, indicating the commitment to respect the spirit of the intercomparison; • Engagement of Instrument Providers: sharing of data from the instruments provided; • No participant should use the SPICE results to gain commercial advantage; • Publication guidelines.
SPICE Timelines • Pre-SPICE: 2011/12: informal experiments guiding the definition of the intercomparison principles (e.g. reference, data management, configuration); NEXT TALK! • Start of the formal Intercomparison: • Nov/Dec 2012 (Northern Hemisphere); • April 2013 (Southern Hemisphere) • Duration: 2 full winter seasons; • Results publication: • Final Report 1-2 years after the completion of the intercomparison; • Yearly project updates; • Partial or site specific results published (Publication Guidelines).