RENEWABLE SOURCES ENERGY
Renewable energy • At the moment, most of the world's energy comes from non-renewable fossil energy resources, namely: oil 35%, coal 29%, gas 24%, nuclear 6% . However, these energy resources are dicreasing day by day. • New technologies are developed to build up energy which comes from natural resources such as sunlight, wind, rain and geothermal heat which are naturally replenished. In recent years, interest in these sources has grown as environmental awareness grows in our society and as governments and industry look for environmentally sound alternatives to the use of fossil fuels. • Podkarpackie province is the region where the sources of renewable energy are particularly rich . The favourable climate conditions namely; winds and good insolation are used to generate electricity. A lot of our province ’s renewable energy supply comes from biomass, which is produced by burning wood, wood wastes or plant materials.
Renewable energy • source : http://www.examiner.com/urban-technology-in-washington-dc/renewable-energy-update-dc-expert-shares-knowledge-about-new-business-opportunities • http://2ndgreenrevolution.com/2011/08/18/sign-of-the-times-renewable-energy-consumption-tops-nuclear/
Water energy • Water energy (water power engineering) deals with gaining energy from the gravitational force of falling or flowing water. It is converted into mechanical and electrical powers through the use of water turbines and generators in hydroelectric power plants. Solina Dam
Environmental impact of water power • Advantages: • 1. Hydropower has a moderate to high amount of useful energy and fairly low operating and maintenance costs. • 2. Hydroelectric power plants emit very little heat-trapping carbon dioxide and other air pollutants during operation. • 3. The dams that are used in the power plants help prevent flooding and supply a regulated flow of irrigation water to the areas below the dam • Disadvantages: • 1. A hydroelectric power plant takes up a lot of space and this may cause animal habitats to go lost. • 2. Hydro power dams can damage the surrounding environment and alter the quality of the water by creating low dissolved oxygen levels, which impacts fish and the surrounding ecosystems. • 3. Dams stop migration of aquatic species like salmon to the ocean. • 4. Large-scale projects can threaten recreational activities and disrupt the flows of rivers
Wind Energy Wind power is one of the oldest rewnewable sources of energy used by the human being. Nowadays, wind turbines convert kinetic energy from the wind into mechanical energy to produce electricity by means of windmills with three blades.
Wind farm-Orzechowce (Podkarpacie) source : http://wind-power.pl/mapa/podkarpackie/
Environmental impact of wind power Advantages: 1. The wind power consumes no fuel, and emits no air pollution, unlike fossil fuel power sources 2. The vegetation clearing and ground disturbance required for wind farms is minimal compared with coal mines and coal-fired power stations, If wind farms are decommissioned, the landscape can be returned to its previous condition. 3. Wind farms are symbols of energy independence and local prosperity, some of them have become tourist attractions, 4. An average turbine provides 63-78 times more energy than used to construct, operate and eventually dismantle the turbine. Disadvantages: 1. Migrating birds or bats may be injured or killed by direct impact with turbine blades, towers, or transmission lines. 2. Rotating turbine blades produce noise and "shadow flicker" when the sun passes behind the turbine.
Geothermal Energy Geothermal energy is defined as heat from the Earth. It is a clean, renewable energy resource because the heat emanating from the Earth's core where the temperature can reach more than 6,000 degrees Celsius is essentially limitless. Geothermal power plants capture this heat and convert it to energy in the form of electricity. Aqua park – Terma Bania (Białka Tatrzańska)
Environmental impact of geothermal energy Advantages: 1. Significant Cost Saving : Geothermal energy generally involves low running costs since it saves 80% costs over fossil fuels and no fuel is used to generate the power. 2. Reduce Reliance on Fossil Fuels : Dependence on fossil fuels decreases with the increase in the use of geothermal energy. With rising prices of oil, many countries are pushing companies to adopt these clean sources of energy. 3. Environmental Benefits : Being the renewable source of energy, geothermal energy has helped in reducing global warming and pollution. 4. Direct Use : Since ancient times, people having been using this source of energy for taking bath, heating homes, preparing food and today this is also used for direct heating of homes and offices. 5. Job Creation and Economic Benefits : Geothermal energy on the other hand has created many jobs for the local people.
Disadvantages: 1. High Installation Costs : To get geothermal energy, requires installation of power plants, to get steam from deep within the earth and this require huge one time investment and require to hire a certified installer and skilled staff needs to be recruited and relocated to plant location. 2. Can Run Out Of Steam : Geothermal sites can run out of steam over a period of time due to drop in temperature or if too much water is injected to cool the rocks and this may result huge loss for the companies which have invested heavily in these plants. 3. Suited To Particular Region : It is only suitable for regions where temperature below the earth are quite low and can produce steam over a long period of time. 4. May Release Harmful Gases : Geothermal sites may contain some poisonous gases like carbon dioxide and methane, they can escape deep within the earth, through the holes drilled by the constructors.
Sources : • -,,Możliwości i praktyka wykorzystania odnawialnych źródeł energii na Podkarpaciu, Stowarzyszenie Horyzonty, Rzeszów 2011 • -www.pl.wikipedia.org • -www.termabania.pl