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Overview of NHTSA Research for Enhancing SafetyITS America Annual MeetingJune 4, 2007 Ray Resendes Intelligent Technologies Research Division National Highway Traffic Safety Administration
The Crash Epidemic Fatal Crashes 43,443 Fatalities (2005) 39,189* 1,816,000* Injury Crashes 4,304,000* Property Damage Crashes 9,000,000 Unreported Crashes 15,200,000 Total Crashes *Police-Reported
Top 10 Leading Causes of Death in the United States for 2001, by Age Group
Automotive Technologies Timeline Driver Warning & Driving Assistance Systems Alcohol / Impairment Detection Intersection Collision Avoidance Systems Automatic Collision Notification Road Departure Warning Systems Automatic Braking Rear-End Collision Avoidance System Brake Assist Blind Spot Warning Lane Departure Warning Roll Stability Control Adaptive Cruise Control Night Vision Electronic Stability Control 2006 2010 2014
Integrated Safety ConceptCrash Time Line Injury Mitigation Prevention Severity Reduction Medical Attention Warn Intervene Protect Notify Developed by: Joseph N. Kanianthra
Research Mission and Goals • Advance Scientific Knowledge in Support of NHTSA's Mission • Identify Opportunities for Increasing Safety • Crashworthiness, Crash Avoidance, Restraint systems • Understand Performance of Advanced Technologies • Crash Prevention, Crash Severity Reduction, Integrated Safety • Develop Objective Tests to Discriminate Performance • Address Human-Vehicle Performance Issues • Retain Leadership in Human Injury Research • Support Rulemaking, Consumer Information and Enforcement Programs Research Programs in Vehicle Safety
Pre-Crash Scenario Typology Total of 36 scenarios = 99.4% of all light vehicle crashes
Relevant Technologies that may Help Avoid a Crash • Road Departure – 23% • Electronic Stability Control • Lane Departure Warning • Lane Keeping • Curve Speed Warning • Lane Change/Merge – 9% • Blind Spot Detection • Side Radar • Intersection – 26% • Forward Radar • Vehicle Communications • Violation Warning • Emergency Brake Light • Rear-End – 29% • Forward Radar • Adaptive Cruise Control • Brake Assist • Vision Enhancement • Backing – 2% • Rear-View Camera • Backing Sensor • Pedestrian/Cyclist & Animal– 6% • Night Vision
Crash Data Counter-measure Concepts System Design/ Build Exposure Data Performance Performance Crash Crash Field Field Specifications/ Specifications/ Problem Problem Operational Operational Test Test Definition Definition Test Test Procedures Procedures Crashes Avoided = No. Crashes (1 – Crash Prevention Ratio Scenario Exposure Ratio) Crash Avoidance Parameter Estimation
Measuring the Safety Impact • Adaptive Cruise Control 17% Reduction • Rear-End Crash Warning 26% Reduction • Road Departure Crash Warning 32%Reduction
Electronic Stability Control Research • Developed over-steer prevention performance test for NPRM. • Researching under-steer mitigation and roll stability control (RSC) for light vehicles. • Researching Heavy Truck ESC and RSC systems. • Anticipate future rulemaking
Avoid RE with slower POV1, then encounter LC with adjacent POV2 Integrated Vehicle-Based Safety Systems Rear-end, run-off-road, and lane change crash countermeasure systems could prevent over 48% or 1,836,000 target crashes.
DSRC DSRC Vehicle Safety Communication Applications
In-Vehicle Impairment Detection Driver Monitoring Systems • Safety Belt Reminder Systems • Distraction Monitoring System • Teen Driver Monitoring • Alcohol Impairment Monitoring SAVE-IT
Concluding Remarks • Research Supports Rulemaking Needs • New Technologies Offer New Opportunities for Enhancing Safety • Effectiveness Evaluation is Essential for Facilitating Deployment • Seamless Integration of Crash Prevention and Occupant Protection is the Future • Leveraging Resources and Collaborative Efforts Needed • Limited Longer-Term Research Will Help
Thank You! Questions