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Floating Point Numbers

- Now you've seen unsigned and signed integers. In real life we also need to be able represent numbers with fractional parts (like: -12.5 & 45.39).

- Called Floating Point numbers.
- You will learn the IEEE 32-bit floating point representation.

Floating Point Numbers

- In the decimal system, a decimal point (radixpoint) separates the whole numbers from the fractional part
- Examples:

37.25 ( whole = 37, fraction = 25/100)

123.567

10.12345678

Floating Point Numbers

For example, 37.25 can be analyzed as:

101 100 10-1 10-2

Tens Units Tenths Hundredths

3 7 2 5

37.25 = (3 x 10) + (7 x 1) + (2 x 1/10) + (5 x 1/100)

Binary Equivalence

The binary equivalent of a floating point number can be determined by computing the binary representation for each part separately.

- 1) For the whole part:
- Use subtraction or division method previously learned.
- 2) For the fractional part:
- Use the subtraction or multiplication method (to be shown next)

Fractional Part – Multiplication Method

In the binary representation of a floating point number the column values will be as follows:

…25 24 23 22 21 20 . 2-1 2-2 2-3 2-4 …

…32 16 8 4 2 1 . 1/2 1/4 1/8 1/16…

… 32 16 8 4 2 1 . .5 .25 .125 .0625…

Fractional Part – Multiplication Method

Ex 1. Find the binary equivalent of 0.25

Step 1: Multiply the fraction by 2 until the fractional part becomes 0.25

x 2

0.5

x 2

1.0

Step 2: Collect the whole parts in forward order. Put them after the radix point

. .5 .25 .125 .0625

.0 1

Fractional Part – Multiplication Method

Ex 2. Find the binary equivalent of 0.625

Step 1: Multiply the fraction by 2 until the fractional part becomes 0.625

x 2

1.25

x 2

0.50

x 2

1.0

Step 2: Collect the whole parts in forward order. Put them after the radix point

. .5 .25 .125 .0625

.1 0 1

Fractional Part – Subtraction Method

Start with the column values again, as follows:

…20 . 2-1 2-2 2-3 2-4 2-5 2-6…

…1 . 1/2 1/4 1/8 1/16 1/32 1/64…

… 1 . .5 .25 .125 .0625 .03125 .015625…

Fractional Part – Subtraction Method

Starting with 0.5, subtract the column values from left to right. Insert a 0 in the column if the value cannot be subtracted or 1 if it can be. Continue until the fraction becomes .0

Ex 1.

.25 .5 .25 .125 .0625

- .25.0 1

.0

Binary Equivalent of FP number

Ex 2. Convert 37.25, using subtraction method.

64 32 16 8 4 2 1 . .5 .25 .125 .0625

26 25 24 23 22 21 20. 2-1 2-2 2-3 2-4

1 0 0 1 0 1

37

- 32 5

- 4

1

-1

0

. 0 1

.25

- .25

.0

37.2510 = 100101.012

Binary Equivalent of FP number

Ex 3. Convert 18.625, using subtraction method.

64 32 16 8 4 2 1 . .5 .25 .125 .0625

26 25 24 23 22 21 20. 2-1 2-2 2-3 2-4

1 0 0 1 0 1 0 1

18 .625

- 16 - .5

2 .125

- 2- .125

0 0

18.62510 = 10010.1012

Try It Yourself

Convert the following decimal numbers to binary:

60.7510

190.562510

(Answers on next page)

Problem storing binary form

- We have no way to store the radix point!
- Standards committee came up with a way to store floating point numbers (that have a decimal point)

IEEE Floating Point Representation

- Floating point numbers can be stored into 32-bits, by dividing the bits into three parts:

the sign, the exponent, and the mantissa.

1

2 9

10 32

IEEE Floating Point Representation

- The first (leftmost) field of our floating point representation will STILL be the sign bit:
- 0 for a positive number,
- 1 for a negative number.

Storing the Binary Form

How do we store a radix point?

- All we have are zeros and ones…

Make sure that the radix point is ALWAYS in the same position within the number.

Use the IEEE 32-bit standard

the leftmost digit must be a 1

Solution is Normalization

Every binary number, except the one corresponding to the number zero, can be normalized by choosing the exponent so that the radix point falls to the right of the leftmost 1 bit.

37.2510 = 100101.012 = 1.0010101 x 25

7.62510 = 111.1012 = 1.11101 x 22

0.312510 = 0.01012 = 1.01 x 2-2

IEEE Floating Point Representation

- The second field of the floating point number will be the exponent.
- The exponent is stored as an unsigned 8-bit number, RELATIVE to a bias of 127.
- Exponent 5 is stored as (127 + 5) or 132
- 132 = 10000100
- Exponent -5 is stored as (127 + (-5)) or 122
- 122 = 01111010

Try It Yourself

How would the following exponents be stored (8-bits, 127-biased):

2-10

28

(Answers on next slide)

Answers

2-10

exponent -10 8-bit

bias +127value

117 01110101

28

exponent 8 8-bit

bias +127value

135 10000111

IEEE Floating Point Representation

- The mantissa is the set of 0’s and 1’s to the left of the radix point of the normalized (when the digit to the left of the radix point is 1) binary number.

Ex: 1.00101 X 23

(The mantissa is 00101)

- The mantissa is stored in a 23 bit field, so we add zeros to the right side and store:
- 00101000000000000000000

Decimal Floating Point toIEEE standard Conversion

Ex 1: Find the IEEE FP representation of 40.15625

Step 1.

Compute the binary equivalent of the whole part and the fractional part. (i.e. convert 40 and .15625 to their binary equivalents)

Decimal Floating Point toIEEE standard Conversion

40 .15625

- 32Result:-.12500Result:

8 101000 .03125 .00101

- 8-.03125

0 .0

So: 40.1562510= 101000.001012

Decimal Floating Point toIEEE standard Conversion

Step 2. Normalize the number by moving the decimal point to the right of the leftmost one.

101000.00101 = 1.0100000101 x 25

Decimal Floating Point toIEEE standard Conversion

Step 3. Convert the exponent to a biased exponent

127 + 5 = 132

And convert biased exponent to 8-bit unsigned binary:

13210 = 100001002

Decimal Floating Point toIEEE standard Conversion

Step 4. Store the results from steps 1-3:

Sign Exponent Mantissa

(from step 3) (from step 2)

0 10000100 01000001010000000000000

Decimal Floating Point toIEEE standard Conversion

Ex 2: Find the IEEE FP representation of –24.75

Step 1. Compute the binary equivalent of the whole part and the fractional part.

24 .75

- 16 Result: - .50 Result:

8 11000 .25 .11

- 8- .25

0 .0

So: -24.7510= -11000.112

Decimal Floating Point toIEEE standard Conversion

Step 2.

Normalize the number by moving the decimal point to the right of the leftmost one.

-11000.11 = -1.100011 x 24

Decimal Floating Point toIEEE standard Conversion.

Step 3. Convert the exponent to a biased exponent

127 + 4 = 131

==> 13110 = 100000112

Step 4. Store the results from steps 1-3

Sign Exponent mantissa

1 10000011 1000110..0

Try It Yourself

- Convert the following numbers to IEEE floating point representation:
- 60.7510
- -190.562510

IEEE standard to Decimal Floating Point Conversion.

- Do the steps in reverse order
- In reversing the normalization step move the radix point the number of digits equal to the exponent:
- If exponent is positive, move to the right
- If exponent is negative, move to the left

IEEE standard to Decimal Floating Point Conversion.

Ex 1: Convert the following 32-bit binary number to its decimal floating point equivalent:

Sign Exponent Mantissa

1 01111101 010..0

IEEE standard to Decimal Floating Point Conversion..

Step 1: Extract the biased exponent and unbias it

Biased exponent = 011111012 = 12510

Unbiased Exponent: 125 – 127 = -2

IEEE standard to Decimal Floating Point Conversion..

Step 2: Write Normalized number in the form:

1 . ____________ x 2 ----

For our number:

-1. 01 x 2 –2

Exponent

Mantissa

IEEE standard to Decimal Floating Point Conversion.

Step 3: Denormalize the binary number from step 2 (i.e. move the decimal and get rid of (x 2n) part):

-0.01012(negative exponent – move left)

Step 4: Convert binary number to the FP equivalent (i.e. Add all column values with 1s in them)

-0.01012 = - ( 0.25 + 0.0625)

= -0.312510

IEEE standard to Decimal Floating Point Conversion.

Ex 2: Convert the following 32 bit binary number to its decimal floating point equivalent:

SignExponentMantissa

0 10000011 10011000..0

IEEE standard to Decimal Floating Point Conversion..

Step 1: Extract the biased exponent and unbias it

Biased exponent = 10000112 = 13110

Unbiased Exponent: 131 – 127 = 4

IEEE standard to Decimal Floating Point Conversion..

Step 2: Write Normalized number in the form:

1 . ____________ x 2 ----

For our number:

1.10011 x 2 4

Exponent

Mantissa

IEEE standard to Decimal Floating Point Conversion.

Step 4: Convert binary number to the FP equivalent (i.e. Add all column values with 1s in them)

11001.1 = 16 + 8 + 1 +.5

= 25.510

Step 3: Denormalize the binary number from step 2 (i.e. move the decimal and get rid of (x 2n) part:

11001.12 (positive exponent – move right)

Try It Yourself

Convert the following IEEE floating point numbers to decimal:

0 10000010 1110010..0

0 10000110 01010..0

1 01111101 10100..0

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