Balinese Dance Music, Rhythm, and Trance State - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Balinese Dance Music, Rhythm, and Trance State

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  1. Balinese DanceMusic, Rhythm, and Trance State Group 1: Alicia, Fred, Javier Monday, June 4, 2007

  2. Balinese Dance Group 1 Alicia OVERVIEW: • History and Culture of Balinese Dance-Alicia • Anthropological Studies and The Hypnotic Trance • Neurophysiology of Dance – Fred • The Induction of Trance – Javier • Long Term Effects of Dance • Discussion - All

  3. Balinese Dance Group 1 Alicia History of Balinese Dance • Indigenous origincombination of Malayo-Polynesian ancestor worship culture of a 2500-1000 BC migration to Bali and more modern Hindu-Javanese elements (prior to 14th century AD) • Dance as religion->ancestor worship as well as ritual blessings offered to gods • Children begin dance education/school from walking

  4. Balinese Dance Group 1 Alicia The Purpose of the Dance • Educating the Community: Story-telling of tradition and cultural values -Balance of Good and Evil -Gender Roles/Identity -Cultivating control of the self (body and emotions) • Communion With the Gods • Possession and Trance

  5. Balinese Dance Group 1 Alicia Hypnotic Trance • Anthropological Studies of Margaret Mead • Analysis of Trance by Erickson: • Absorption in dance • Unified movement of the body • Increased muscle tone/rigidity • Minimum use of energy • Additional Parallels to Hypnosis • Amnesia • Unusual Physical Feats: Kris Dance

  6. Balinese Dance Group 1 Alicia The Character of the Dance • Primary Musical Instrument: Percussion • Training of specific types of coordinated movements: arms, hands, legs, shoulders, eyes • Rhythmic movement on time with drum • Controlled Eye Movements • ???How do these potentially induce trance???

  7. Balinese Dance Group 1

  8. Balinese Dance Group 1 Fred Neurophysiology • Human Dance • Swinging in the Brain • Eye Movements

  9. Balinese Dance Group 1 Fred Human Dance: Neural Basis • PET imaging • Pattern Entrainment Study • Interacting network of brain areas during patterned rhythmic dance movement. Steven Brown1,2, Michael J. Martinez1 and Lawrence M. Parsons. The Neural Basis of Human Dance. Cerebral Cortex Advance Access published October 17, 2005. http://cercor.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/reprint/bhj057v2.pdf • Human dance was investigated with positron emission tomography • to identify its systems-level organization. Three core aspects of • dance were examined: entrainment, meter and patterned movement. • Amateur dancers performed small-scale, cyclically repeated • tango steps on an inclined surface to the beat of tango music, • without visual guidance. Entrainment of dance steps to music, • compared to self-pacing of movement, was supported by anterior • cerebellar vermis. Movement to a regular, metric rhythm, compared • to movement to an irregular rhythm, implicated the right putamen in • the voluntary control of metric motion. Spatial navigation of leg • movement during dance, when controlling for muscle contraction, • activated the medial superior parietal lobule, reflecting proprioceptive • and somatosensory contributions to spatial cognition in dance. • Finally, additional cortical, subcortical and cerebellar regions were • active at the systems level. Consistent with recent work on simpler, • rhythmic, motor-sensory behaviors, these data reveal the interacting • network of brain areas active during spatially patterned, • bipedal, rhythmic movements that are integrated in dance.

  10. Balinese Dance Group 1 Fred Neural Basis of Dance:PET Studies • Amateur dancers: small-scale movements • Comparison: • Metric vs. Motor condition • Metric vs. Non-metric condition • Metric vs. Contractions

  11. Balinese Dance Group 1 Fred Neural Basis of Dance:Activations • Right Putamen (BG Circuit) • Movement :: regular rhythm vs. irregular rhythm • Test voluntary control during metric motion • Medial Superior Parietal Lobe • Spatial navigation (pattern) • Proprioceptive and somatosensory activations (in dance) • Anterior cerebellar vermis

  12. Balinese Dance Group 1 Fred Neural Basis of Dance:Activations (cont.) • bilateral motor • somatosensory and premotor areas • right supplementary motor area • right frontal operculum • left medial superior parietal cortex • superior temporal regions • right cingulate motor area • basal ganglia • bilateral anterior vermal • and posterior-lateral cerebellum

  13. Balinese Dance Group 1 Fred Behavior and Dance • Sequence learning and Sensorimotor coordination during tapping task • Perceptual and motor systems are coupled across multiple levels of processing. • simple coupling :: foot-tap • complex :: dance PetrJanata and Scott T Grafton. Swinging in the brain: shared neural substrates for behaviors related to sequencing and music. Volume 6 Number 7 July 2003 Nature Neuroscience

  14. Balinese Dance Group 1 Fred Behavior and Dance:Timing … • Metric Condition: • requires perception and production • Non-metric Condition • require explicit memory • “… rhythmic properties of a piece of music entrain neural oscillators that facilitate synchronization of both perception and action with the underlying beat in music.” (9,10)

  15. Balinese Dance Group 1 Fred Behavior and Dance:… and sequencing • Serial Reaction Task (SRT) • Outside temporal context • Explicit memory • Attention dynamically allocated to salient moments in time • Attentional processes are embodied • Attention and timing are interwoven, involved in sensorimotor coupling

  16. Balinese Dance Group 1 Fred Eye-Movement: Lucidity Research • EEG mapping of lucid dreaming • Lucid Dreams generally initiated during periods of high ANS activity • decreased finger pulse amplitude • increased respiration rate and irregularity • increased eye-movement activity relative to normal REM sleep • Lucidity occurs during periods of relatively high brain activation • sufficient CNS activation necessary before consciousness can be attained LaBerge, S., Levitan, L., & Dement, W. (1986). Lucid dreaming: Physiological correlates of consciousness during REM sleep. Journal of Mind and Behavior, 7, 251-258. http://www.psywww.com/asc/ld/research.html

  17. Balinese Dance Group 1 Fred EMDR • Francine Shapiro • New therapeutic movement: • Eye Movement Desensitization Reprogramming (EMDR). Cincinnati Skeptic Vol. 4, No. 3. EMDR Works! Is That Enough? The Newsletter of The Association for Rational Thought 3 February, 1995http://www.cincinnatiskeptics.org/newsletter/art4-3.html

  18. Balinese Dance Group 1

  19. Balinese Dance Group 1 Javier Long-term EffectsDance and Trance • Trance State • Long-Term • The Mind-Body Connection • Music Perception and Movement

  20. Balinese Dance Group 1 Javier Trance State • What is trance? • A sleeplike state that is sometimes followed by an indifference of objective environment and amnesia. • How is it induced? • induced by rigorous tasks that require focused attention, such as dance, running, fasting, etc… • However, also induced by drugs, stress, and emotions, which all affect the cholinergic system.

  21. Balinese Dance Group 1 Javier Long-Term:See Fred, see Fred Dance • MNS and Dance • trained dancers showed more activity of MNS to known dances when compared to non-dancers - Daniel Glaser • Benefits of Dance • Movement can serve as a mediator to facilitate behavioral change and well being. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/sciencenow/3204/01-resup.html

  22. Balinese Dance Group 1 Javier Mind-Body Connection • Rhythm • “People moving in the same rhythm with the same spatial configuration become identified with one another. Gradually they assume a common expression, moving with the same dynamic qualities (effort synchrony), in comparable areas of space (spatial synchrony), to the same rhythm (rhythmic synchrony. In this way the group achieves a sense of solidarity.” (p.19, Moreno 1988) – Mind/Body Connection

  23. Balinese Dance Group 1 Javier Mind-Body connection • Effects of rhythmic sounds on the brain • Beat &Tempo • Pulse rate, galvanic skin response, and blood pressure stabilize to match external tempi. • Respiration and metabolism accelerate. • Rhythmic Movements • An inherited biological response regulated by internal rhythmic generators and reactive to external rhythmic factors

  24. Balinese Dance Group 1 Discussion • What are ASCs? • Lack of PFC activity • Attention Shift • Rhythm and collective consciousness • Social cognition and music • Dance Dance Revolution

  25. Balinese Dance Group 1 Works Cited • Bandem, I. and deBoer, F. Balinese Dance in Transition.Oxford University Press, New York 1995. • Cynthia F. Berrol. The neurophysiologic basis of the mind-body connection in dance/movement therapy. American Journal of Dance Therapy, Volume 14, Number 1 / March, 1992, 19-29. http://www.springerlink.com/content/p48633k645807x32/ • Cincinnati Skeptic Vol. 4, No. 3. EMDR Works! Is That Enough? The Newsletter of The Association for Rational Thought 3 February, 1995. http://www.cincinnatiskeptics.org/newsletter/art4-3.html. • Haley, R. and Haley, J. Dance and trance of Balinese children [videorecording] / Triangle Productions ; Filmakers Library, New York, N.Y, c1995. • LaBerge, S., Levitan, L., & Dement, W. (1986). Lucid dreaming: Physiological correlates of consciousness during REM sleep. Journal of Mind and Behavior, 7, 251-258. http://www.psywww.com/asc/ld/research.html • Large, E.W. On synchronizing movments to music. Hum. Mov. Sci. 19, 527-566 (2000) • Large, E.W & Palmer, C. Percieving t emporal regularity in music. Cognit. Sci. 26 ,1-37 (2002) • PetrJanata and Scott T Grafton. Swinging in the brain: shared neural substrates for behaviors related to sequencing and music. Volume 6 Number 7 July 2003 Nature Neuroscience. • Stefan Koelsch1 and Walter A. Siebel2. Towards a neural basis of music perception TRENDS in Cognitive Sciences Vol.9 No.12 December 2005. • Steven Brown1,2, Michael J. Martinez1 and Lawrence M. Parsons. The Neural Basis of Human Dance. Cerebral Cortex Advance Access published October 17, 2005. http://cercor.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/reprint/bhj057v2.pdf • http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/sciencenow/3204/01-resup.html • http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://members.aol.com/dcaronejr/ezmed/cerebellum.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.medfriendly.com/cerebellarvermis.html&h=277&w=350&sz=26&hl=en&start=3&um=1&tbnid=U1AAKr54vaJToM:&tbnh=95&tbnw=120&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dvermis%26svnum%3D10%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den