1-Harappa and Mohenjo Daro, located in the Indus River valley, may have been the first cities in South Asia. Describe them in detail. • Brick buildings, well-planned. • Carefully laid-out streets. • Ceremonial gateways. • Buildings to store grain. • Cities had plumbing, sewers.
2-What caused the fall of the Indus Valley civilization? • Earthquakes and floods may have damaged the cities. • The Indus River may have changed course.
3-About 1500 B.C., nomadic herders known as Aryans were settling in parts of northernSouth Asia. The Aryans developed a spoken language called Sanskrit. They passed on hymnsand religious teachings by word of mouth. When Sanskrit later became a written language, these traditions were recorded in sacred, or holy texts called the Vedas.
4-Define: varnas The Vedas show that the Aryans were organized into four varnas or broad social groups
5-List the 4 varnas 1-priests 2-warriors 3-farmers 4-unskilled laborers and servants
6-Explain: caste [jati] At first, people of different groups could marry and change jobs. Over time, a caste system arose. A caste is a social group that one is born into and cannot change. Called jati by people in South Asia Still exists in India, but not as important as it once was.
7-Write 8-10 facts about Hinduism. Be sure to define: reincarnation, dharma, and karma. • One of the world’s oldest religions and the third largest. • Developed gradually as beliefs of ancient Aryans mixed with beliefs of • others in the region. • The eternal spirit is called Brahman. • Believe that every living has a soul that wants to reunite with • Brahman. To achieve this reunion, a soul must repeatedly undergo: • Reincarnation-being born into a new body after dying. • Hindus believe that a soul passes through many lives, becoming purer • each time, before reaching Brahman.
7-Write 8-10 facts about Hinduism. Be sure to define: reincarnation, dharma, and karma. • To ensure their next lives are better, Hindus believe they must • perform their duty, or dharma. • Each caste has its own dharma. • The consequences of how a person lives are known as karma. • Hindus believe that if they do their duty, they will have good karma. • This will move them closer to Brahman in the next life.
8-Write 6-8 facts about Buddhism. Be sure to define: nirvana • Arose in South Asia in the 500s B.C. • Founded by a prince named Siddhartha Guatama. • Siddhartha gave up wealth and family in search of truth. • He became known as the Buddha, or “Enlightened One.” • The Buddha taught that people suffer because they are too attached to material things. • The Buddha believed that people can be released from these attachments to material • things by following the Eightfold Path. • By following the eight paths, people can escape suffering and reach nirvana: a state of • endless peace and joy.
9-Write 5 or more facts about the following South Asian Empires • Mauryan Empire • Asoka was the most famous Mauryan ruler. • Brought much of the subcontinent under his control. • Asoka dedicated his life to peace and became a Buddhist. • Sent Buddhist missionaries throughout Asia, but he allowed • people to practice other religions. • Trade and culture thrived under Asoka’s rule
9-Write 5 or more facts about the following South Asian Empires • Gupta Empire • Set up by ruler Chandragupta I in Northern India. [A.D. 320] • Under the empire’s Hindu rulers: trade increased and ideas • were exchanged with other parts of the world. • Science, mathematics, medicine and the arts thrived. • South Asian mathematicians developed the numerals 1 to 9.
9-Write 5 or more facts about the following South Asian Empires • Mogul Empire • Formed in the early 1500s by Muslim warriors known as Moguls. • The ruler Akbar added new lands to the empire, lowered taxes and • supported the arts. • Akbar brought peace to his empire by treating all of his people fairly. • The majority of Hindus were allowed to worship freely and to serve in • the government. • Later Mogul leaders heavily taxed the people; many of whom rebelled. • Foreign invaders further weakened the empire which was near collapse • by the early 1700s.
10-Why did the people of South Asia resent the British East India Company? • The British East India Company introduced • European ideas and practices. • People in India felt that the British were trying to • change their culture.
11-What led to the British to take direct control of India in 1857? • Indian soldiers in the British East India • Company’s army rebelled against their British • officers. • The revolt spread across northern India. • The British sent more troops and put the rebellion • down. • After this, the British government took direct • control of India.
12-Describe the positive changes the British brought to India. • They set up a well-run government and founded • schools. • They built railroads, bridges and ports. • They introduced the telegraph and a postal service • throughout India.
13-What were the hardships caused by British rule? • Cheap British textiles flooded local markets and • destroyed the textile industry. • Taxes fell heavily on the poor.
14-By the early 1900s, independence movements had spread across South Asia. The most popular Indian leader was MohandasGandhi. Gandhi opposed violence in all forms. Instead, he protested British rule using nonviolent civil disobedience --- the refusal to obey unjust laws using peaceful protests.
15- Gandhi and his followers held strikes and boycotted, or refused to buy British goods. Their goal was to bring independence to the subcontinent.
16- Gandhi’s movement won widespread support among Hindus. Muslims, however, feared that the much-larger Hindu population might mistreat them in an independent India.
17-How did the British divide India in 1947? • The British divided India into two independent • countries. • Areas that were mostly Hindu became the country of India. • Areas that were mostly Muslim became the country of Pakistan.
18-Explain what happened after this division. • Many Hindus in Pakistan fled to India • Many Muslims fled to Pakistan.
19-Explain the relationship between India and Pakistan today. • Religious differences. • Land disputes: • Both claim ownership of the region of Kashmir. Both have fought wars over this.