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METHODOLOGY. Ludmila Matveeva ISS SQE Leader. TOPICS COVERED. ISS Process Brief Overview Software (SW) Process Improvement SW Process Quality Models and Standards CMMI Overview The Benefits from SW Process Deployment How to Get Things Started.

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slide1

METHODOLOGY

Ludmila Matveeva

ISS SQE Leader

slide2

TOPICS COVERED

  • ISS Process Brief Overview
  • Software (SW) Process Improvement
  • SW Process Quality Models and Standards
  • CMMI Overview
  • The Benefits from SW Process Deployment
  • How to Get Things Started
about us
ISS – Information Software Systems Ltd., was founded in 2000 as a company for Motorola outsourced engineering projects in Ukraine.

ISS partners with different Motorola and Freescale (former Motorola Semiconductor sector) affiliates, and works on various projects for these affiliates.

In July 2003 ISS became the first software company in Ukraine formally assessed for CMM, joining the ranks of 1,500 companies from 60 countries that meet this highest Quality Standard.

ABOUT US
iss software development overview
ISS SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT OVERVIEW

2007

CMMI Appraisal

SCAMPI Class C

2006

Tailoring CMMI process to

the Customer’s Agile process

2005

Turned to CMMI

2004

2004

Implementation of

Implementation of

CMM Level 4 and 5 practices

CMM Level 4 and 5 practices

2003

2003

Institutionalization of

Institutionalization of

ISS SW Process

ISS SW Process

CMM level 3

CMM level 3

2002

2002

ISS SW Process

ISS SW Process

Establishment

Establishment

2001

2001

2001

Planning foundations

and basic metrics gathering

foundations

iss sw process best practices
ISS Software Engineering Handbook

SEPG and regular Process Improvement

Tailoring of the project’ Process according the project needs

Periodic Process Gap analysis and self-assessments

Everyone participates in Process activities

Use of quantitative methods

ISS concept of process management is founded on the principles of statistical process control

Establishing admissible levels of processes variability

Controlled process

Stable process

Predictable results

Prepare achievable plans, meeting cost and scheduling commitments & Deliver required product functionality and quality

Defect prevention practices

ISS SW PROCESS BEST PRACTICES
iss sw process best practices cont
Quality and Test Groups are independent

Defect Tracking System established. DTS is the tool for tracking of different process and project activities

Audit Program

Quality Assurance activities planned on organizational and project levels, audits conductedon regular basis

Audits results stored in Audit Database

Metrics Program

Projects and process metricscollected and analysed

Historical Database maintained

Quality engineer participates in: project reviews, postmortems, and causal analysis

Checklists used across all process areas

ISS SW PROCESS BEST PRACTICES (cont.)
iss sw process best practices cont1
Training Program Developed

Training activities planned on organizational and project levels

Training records stored in Training Database

Training Champion identified

Training Standards and Procedures Defined

Training Program Implemented

Local training regularly conducted by local instructors. Training materials reviewed

Training feedback collected and analyzed

Permanent Process training and consultations are provided by Motorola specialists

ISS SW PROCESS BEST PRACTICES (cont.)
software process definition process improvement
A Definition of SW Process. Process is the basis of industrial software production

SW Process Improvement foundation – quality of product is governed by quality of process; quality cannot be added later to the product.

Most of the SW products are extremely complex systems. To build quality into such products, engineering discipline is required

Understanding existing processes and introducing process changes to improve product quality, reduce costs or accelerate schedules.

Surviving in the competitive business world that is constantly changing requires constant adaptation and learning

SOFTWARE PROCESS DEFINITION. PROCESS IMPROVEMENT
process improvement
The process improvement cycle involves process measurement, process analysis and process change

Process measurement

Attributes of the current process are measured to quantify its status and performance. These are a baseline for assessing improvements and information for decision making.

Process measurement should be used to answer specific process questions, based on organizational improvement goals (Goal-Question-Metric Paradigm)

Process analysis

The current process is assessed and bottlenecks and weaknesses are identified

Study existing processes to understand their activities and the relationships between parts of the process and to compare them with other processes

Process modeling is the documentation of a process which records the tasks, the roles and the entities used

Produce an abstract model of the process and analyze it to discover process problems

This involves discussing process activities with stakeholders and discovering problems and possible process changes

Process change

Changes to the process that have been identified during the analysis are introduced: plan, justify, implement, and train

Changes should be driven by measurable goals

The impact and benefits gained should be assessed and compared to the costs of changes made to the processes

PROCESS IMPROVEMENT
a process model
What is a Process Model?

A model is a structured collection of elements that describes characteristics of effective process

A model is used

to help set process improvement objectives and priorities

as a guide for improvement of project and organizational processes

with an assessment method to diagnose the state of improvement efforts

Why is a Model Important?

A model provides a starting place, a framework for prioritizing actions, a common language and a shared vision, the benefit of a community’s prior experiences

It is always best to start process analysis with an existing model. People then may extend and change this

What are the risks of model-based improvement?

Models are not comprehensive

Interpretation and tailoring must be aligned to business objectives

Judgment is necessary to use models correctly and with insight

Potential for dysfunctional behavior to get a maturity level rating

“All models are wrong; some are useful”

A PROCESS MODEL
sw process quality models and standards
Many possible choices for improvement framework…

SEI’s Capability Maturity Models

ISO 9001 (Quality Management System)

ISO/IEC 15504 (SPICE)

…or ISO 12207 (Software Life Cycle Processes), Bootstrap (Europe), domain-specific model Trillium (Bell): Telecom domain…

… or improvement “philosophies”/approaches such as SixSigma, GQM (Goal-Question-Metrics), IDEAL model, SPC (Statistical Process Control), PDCA (Plan-Do-Check-Act) cycle…

SW PROCESS QUALITY MODELS AND STANDARDS
sw process improvement approaches sixsigma
Six Sigma originally developed by Motorola to systematically improve processes by eliminating defects Bill Smith 1986

SixSigma is:

Quality management philosophy

Reduce variation in your business and make customer-focused, data driven decisions

Quality improvement methodology

Methodology and tools to improve business processes

Pareto charts

Histograms

Cause-and-effect diagrams (Ishikawa)

Run charts and Control charts, etc.

Uses SPC methods, for ex.:

DMAIC – Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, Control

Measurement of product and process quality

3.4 defects per million opportunities

SW PROCESS IMPROVEMENT APPROACHES. SixSigma
sw process improvement approaches gqm paradigm
GQM paradigm aims to provide information needed for understanding, guiding, and changing the software processes of a software development project Basili & Weiss 1984

Goals

What is the organization trying to achieve? The objective of process improvement is to satisfy these goals

Questions

Questions about areas of uncertainty related to the goals. You need process knowledge to derive these

Metrics

Measurements to be collected to answer the questions

GQM translates Goals into Measures by means of Questions and Indicators = GQ(I)M

GQ(I)M operates with:

G - Entities (Objects)

QI - Attributes (Characteristics of Objects)

M - Measures (Values of Attributes), Measurements (Rules to assign Values of Attributes)

SW PROCESS IMPROVEMENT APPROACHES. GQM Paradigm
sw process improvement approaches pdca cycle
PDCA (Plan-Do-Check-Act) cycle W. Edwards Deming 1986

Control Circle within the Total Quality Control (TQC) improvement model Ishikawa 1985

SW PROCESS IMPROVEMENT APPROACHES. PDCA cycle
sw process quality models and standards cont
SW Process best practices

Assessment-based approaches

SPICE

CMM(I)

Bootstrap: the European counterpart to CMM

SW Process standards

ISO 9000 series. ISO 9001(2000) provides a model for quality assurance in design, development, production, installation, and servicing. ISO 9000-3(1997) provides guidelines for the application of ISO 9001 in SW development.

SWEBOK (international project promoted by IEEE Computer Society and the ACM)

SW PROCESS QUALITY MODELS AND STANDARDS (cont.)
slide18
Other Process frameworks…

RUP (Rational Unified Process) – SW engineering process based on the best practices in modern SW development with an interactive knowledge base integrated with tools

Agile methods: Agile Modeling, eXtreme Programming, Scrum, Feature Driven Development, Crystal methods…

Individuals and Interactions over processes and tools

Working software over comprehensive documentation

Customer collaboration over contract negotiation

Responding to change over following a plan

…and product quality standards

ISO 9126 – standard for SW product quality

IEEE Std. 1061:1998 – standard for SW quality metrics methodology

SW PROCESS QUALITY MODELS AND STANDARDS (cont.)

sw process quality models and standards cont1
Process used should depend on the type of product being developed

For large systems or long life-time products, management is usually the principal problem so a strictly managed process is needed;

For smaller systems or short life-time products, more informality is possible

There is no uniformly applicable process which should be standardized within an organization

High costs may be incurred if you force an inappropriate process on a development team;

Inappropriate methods can also increase costs and lead to reduced quality

A fundamental factor for successes is the capability to focus on the right processes in improvement lest resources be wasted for nothing

SW PROCESS QUALITY MODELS AND STANDARDS (cont.)
sei cmm i history
The CMMI framework is the current stage of work on process assessment and improvement that started at the Software Engineering Institute (SEI) in the 1980s.

Software Engineering Institute (SEI) USA

Established in 1984

Sponsored by DoD (Department of Defense)

Under Carnegie Mellon University

The SEI’s mission is to promote software technology transfer particularly to US defense contractors

SEI has had a profound influence on process improvement

Capability Maturity Model introduced in the early 1990s.

Revised maturity framework (CMMI) introduced in 2001.

SEI CMM(I) HISTORY
foundations of cmmi what is cmmi
A framework of the key process elements for system development

Structured collection of processes proven through experience

The CMMI tells you what to do but not how to do it

An integrated view of process improvement across multiple disciplines

Set process improvement goals and priorities

Provides guidance for quality processes

Provides a yardstick for assessing current practices

Based on concepts and approached pioneered by Crosby, Deming, Juran, Humphrey, et al.

FOUNDATIONS OF CMMI. WHAT IS CMMI?
foundations of cmmi cont
Two approaches to process improvement

Process capability – pertains to an individual process

Knowing the process capabilities of a collection of processes has implications for organizational maturity

Organizational maturity – pertains to a set of processes

Begins at a particular level of organizational maturity has process capability implications for multiple processes

Two representations exist: staged and continuous

CMMI support each approach with a representation

Process capability approach  continuous representation

Organizational maturity approach  staged representation

The type of representation to use is based on the purpose of the improvement task

FOUNDATIONS OF CMMI (cont.)
the cmmi model components
Process areas

24 process areas that are relevant to process capability and improvement are identified. These are organized into 4 groups.

Goals

Goals are descriptions of desirable organizational states. Each process area has associated goals.

Practices

Practices are ways of achieving a goal - however, they are advisory and other approaches to achieve the goal may be used.

Process improvement in the CMMI model is based on reaching a set of goals related to good software engineering practice

THE CMMI MODEL COMPONENTS
cmmi appraisals
Assessment requirements for CMMIdefine:

Responsibilities of the Sponsor and Leader

Assessment Method Documentation

Planning and Preparing for Assessment

Assessment Data collection

Data Consolidation and Validation

Rating

Reporting results

SCAMPI (Standard CMMI-based Assessment Method for Process Improvement) principles include:

Senior management sponsorship

Focus on organization’s business goals

Use of documented assessment method

Use of a process reference model (a CMMI model)

Confidentiality of interviewees

Collaborative team approach

Focus on follow-up improvement actions

CMMI APPRAISALS
cmmi appraisals cont
3 SCAMPI classes:

class C – approach

class B –deployment

class A – institutionalization

Appraisal Team qualification

CMMI APPRAISALS (cont.)
the benefits of process deployment
Typical benefits of software process improvement (SPI) include:

Higher quality (fewer defects)

Lower maintenance (less rework)

Higher productivity (lower development cost)

Faster cycle times (quick time-to-market)

Greater value (more product features)and variety (more product variations)

Higher customer satisfaction (more contracts)

THE BENEFITS OF PROCESS DEPLOYMENT
the benefits of process deployment roi
ROI (Return On Investment) is the quantification of the benefits received or financial return of any given investment

ROI numbers ease decision making

How should managers estimate the costs and benefits of different software process improvement (SPI) methods in order to select SPI method with the greatest ROI from the alternatives?

THE BENEFITS OF PROCESS DEPLOYMENT. ROI
the benefits of process deployment roi1
ModelPhillips J.L. (1997). Return on investment in training and performance improvement programs. Houston, TX: Gulf Publishing CompanyTHE BENEFITS OF PROCESS DEPLOYMENT. ROI
the benefits of process deployment roi2
Motorola reported total ROI 677% when raising their capability from SW-CMM level 2 to 5.

The calculation is based on required SPI investment rework originating from defects, and differences in defects rates between the SW-CMM level 2 and level 5 projects

Boeing Space Transportation Systems reported total ROI 775% measured after CMM and inspections implementation

THE BENEFITS OF PROCESS DEPLOYMENT. ROI
the benefits of process deployment cost of sw quality coq cost of poor quality copq
COQ = (A + T + DP) + COPQ

A-auditing efforts; T-testing efforts; DP-defect prevention activity efforts; COPQ- time for defects fixing

COQ introduced by J.M. Juran in 1951 as a means of providing justification to management for investments in process improvements

Efforts spent for quality reduce COQ

COPQ is increased exponentially during project lifecycle

EXAMPLE

THE BENEFITS OF PROCESS DEPLOYMENT. Cost of SW Quality (COQ)/Cost of Poor Quality (COPQ)
how to get things started
Basic steps to improve process capability:

Understand the current status of development process and practices (software process assessment)

Develop a vision of the desired process (improvement objectives)

Establish a list of required process improvement actions in order of priority (high level roadmap)

Produce a plan to accomplish the required actions (action plan)

Commit the resources to execute the plan (improvement schedule)

Start over at step 1(continuous loop)

HOW TO GET THINGS STARTED
how to get things started cont1
Quality Control (QC) vs Quality Assurance (QA)

QC (for ex., testing) is about detecting defects; the QA is about avoiding them

QA analyst identifies improvement opportunities

Searches for patterns of inefficiencies, defects, or other problems

QA engineers effective processes

Any initial process description or procedure must be seen as only the starting point for the real process engineering work. Only monitoring a process as it is used to perform real work can we see where its inefficiencies lie

QA ensures that people are doing their work consistently

This part of QA is the closest to QC, but it is still different in its focus. QC evaluates the product of actions; QA evaluates the actions themselves

QA is an investment in improving our organization

Start by using your data to find the most troublesome problems, either problems that keep repeating themselves, or those that are most costly

QC indicates the level of quality that we produced on a project. When we supplement QC with QA, we improve the level of quality we will produce on all future projects

HOW TO GET THINGS STARTED (cont.)