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Introduction to Herpes Viruses. Hugh B. Fackrell Filename: Herpes1.ppt Fackrel@uwindsor.ca. Herpes Viruses. Group characteristics Herpes simplex 1 Herpes simplex 2. VP26 Assembly in HSV-1 Capsid. Herpes Virus Outline. Structure Classification Multiplication Clinical manifestations

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Introduction to herpes viruses

Introduction to Herpes Viruses

Hugh B. Fackrell

Filename: Herpes1.ppt

Fackrel@uwindsor.ca


Herpes viruses

Herpes Viruses

Group characteristics

Herpes simplex 1

Herpes simplex 2



Herpes virus outline
Herpes Virus Outline

  • Structure

  • Classification

  • Multiplication

  • Clinical manifestations

  • Epidemiology

  • Diagnosis

  • Control

Baron’s Web Site


Herpes have a unique structure
Herpes have a Unique Structure

  • dsDNA core

  • Iscadeltahedral protein capsid

  • amorphous tegument

  • lipid envelope with glycoproteins


Human herpesvirus subfamilies
Human Herpesvirus Subfamilies

  • herpesvirinae

  • herpesvirinae

  • herpesvirinae

Infect both vertebrate and non vertebrate

>100 types characterized

6 types infect humans


Bovine herpes
Bovine Herpes

  • Mammillitus


Herpesvirinae
Herpesvirinae

  • Human herpesvirus 1 -HHV1

    Herpes simplex type 1-HSV1

  • Human Herpesvirus 2 -HHV2

    Herpes simplex type 2 -HSV2

Short replicative cycle

Rapid cytopathology

Broad host range


Animations of hsv
Animations of HSV

  • Receptor Binding

  • RNA Transcription in productive infection

  • Latent Infections

  • DNA Replication

  • Encapsidation and Release

Click here to view Dr. Ed. Wagner, superb series of animations on HSV on the internet



Herpes simplex virus1
Herpes simplex virus

Isolated from a patient with shingles


Herpesvirinae1
Herpesvirinae

  • Human Herpesvirus 5 -HHV5

    Cytomegalovirus- CMV

Long replicative cycle

Restricted host range

Slow cytopathology



Herpesvirinae2
Herpesvirinae

  • Human Herpesvirus 4 HHV4

  • Epstein-Barr EBV or EB

  • Human Herpesvirus 6 -HHV6

Very restricted host range


Varicellavirus
Varicellavirus

  • genus in herpesvirus family

  • human herpesvirus 3 (HHV3)

  • varicella-zoster virus


Multiplication
Multiplication

Genes replicated in specific order

  • Immediate early genes

    • regulatory proteins

  • Early genes

    • enzymes for replicating viral DNA

  • Late genes

    • structural proteins

      Occurs in host cell nucleus


Latent infections
Latent Infections

  • ALL herpes viruses can establish latent infections. The viral genome may become incorporated into the host DNA or remain extrachromosomal

  • Latent viruses can be reactivated by stress, menstruation or uv light

  • Reactivation may be asymptomatic or lead to mild or severe disease.


Diagnosis
Diagnosis

  • Isolation of virus by tissue culture

  • herpevirinae cause cytopathic effects

  • intranuclear fluorescence of scrapings using fluorescent antibodies

  • PCR being developed

CMV retinitis is diagnosed clinically


Prevention of herpesvirus
Prevention of Herpesvirus

  • Vaccines

    • VZV vaccine being licensed

    • HSV1, HSV2, & CMV vaccines being developed

  • Passive immunization

    • pooled immunoglobulin

    • hyperimmune globulin


Anti herpesvirus drugs
Anti-herpesvirus drugs

  • Idoxuridine- herpetic keratitis

  • Trifuridine-herpetic keratitis

  • Vidarabine - wide range of applications

  • Acylovir-wide range of applications

  • Ganciclovir -CMV



Epidemiology of herpes simplex
Epidemiology of Herpes Simplex

  • HSV1 is transmitted by kissing or other contact with saliva

  • HSV2 is spread by sexual contact

  • HSV2 is spread nosocomially


Mucocutaneous infections caused by herpes simplex
Mucocutaneous infections caused by Herpes simplex

  • Gingivostomatis

  • Herpes simplex labialis (cold sores)

  • Genital herpes

  • Keratitis

  • Whitlows- health care workers

  • Herpes gladiatorum- wrestlers


Herpes simplex type 1
Herpes simplex type 1

  • Herpes labialis.

    • cold sores or fever blisters. text: page 569.

    • 2-12 day incubation period.

    • gingivostomatitis -- vesicles rupture.

    • latent virus in ganglia -- Herpetic keratoconjunctivitis -- ulcers can be identified by fluorescein staining.


Herpes simplex
Herpes simplex

  • Stomatitis



Herpes simplex2
Herpes simplex

  • Stomatitis


Transmission hsv1
Transmission: HSV1

  • Transmitted by direct contact such as kissing or fondling; very common with young children.

  • Good personal hygiene does curtail the transmission.


Treatment hsv1
Treatment HSV1

  • The first drugs were used to treat conjunctivitis and keratitis

    • Iododeoxyuridine

    • trifluridine

    • adenine arabinoside

    • acyclovir


Treatment hsv11
Treatment HSV1

  • Iododeoxyuridine: direct application to the cornea

  • Trifluridine, Keratitis: direct application

  • Adenine arabinoside: direct application to the cornea. Intravenously injected, it reduces mortality from herpes encephalitis.

  • Acyclovir: is now the drug of choice, is the least toxic. Can be used topically, orally and intravenously.


Genital herpes hsv2
Genital Herpes HSV2

  • primary infection: vulva, vagina, cervix.glans penis, prepuce or penile shaft.

  • fever, malaise, anorexia, bilateral inguinal adenopathy.

  • sexually transmitted - highest rate among young adults.

  • Patients on immunosuppressive drugs


Neonatal herpes simplex
Neonatal Herpes Simplex

  • infants acquire the virus passing through the birth canal.

  • disseminated herpes - newborns; premature infants susceptible



Treatment hsv2
Treatment HSV2

  • Acyclovir does not cure the initial infection, but because it prevents the attachment of released virus from an infected cell, it ameliorates the disease. With aggressive treatment eventually the viruses disappear. It is not an effective cure for the latent stage.





Ctyopathic effect
Ctyopathic effect

Early

Late>