UGA Investigative Macroevolution Investigators: Dianne Burpee, Shu-Mei Chang, Mark Farmer, Paula Lemons, Kim Nelson, and Denise Woodward Facilitators: Kelley Harris-Johnson and Lillian Tong
Investigative Macroevolution: Teachable Unit Target Audience: Introductory Biology (Majors and Non-Majors)
Unit Timeline • Topics and activities • History and change of biological classification schemes • Discussion of common characteristics of life and shared-derived characteristics of major groups of organisms • Analysis of character data • How to construct phylogenetic trees from character data • How to interpret phylogenetic trees
Investigative Macroevolution: Teachable Tidbit • Learning Goal and Objectives • Understand how Investigative Macroevolution relates to something meaningful • Build a phylogenetic tree from a data matrix • Interpret a phylogeny • Apply phylogenetic analysis to solve a clinical mystery
Recap From Last Class Data Matrix Resulting Phylogeny
Activity • DO NOT start until you have been told to GO • Construct a data matrix using the data strips that you will find in the large envelope. • Open envelope 1 and circle the best tree that fits the data matrix and provide group name. • One team member run to front with your tree.
Clicker Q1. Which of the following phylogenetic trees matches the tree you constructed from your data matrix? A.B. C.D.
The Correct Phylogeny - B Staphylo- coccus Strepto- coccus Chytrid Myxozoa Ascaris Candida Amanita C. elegans Giardia Chlamydia Trypanosome Bacteria Protists Fungi Animals
What’s Ailing Roberto? You are a clinical microbiologist who specializes in identifying parasitic infections. • A physician has brought you a sample of a pathogenic organism from a critically ill 22 year old male patient who has not responded to standard treatment.
He has no known underlying health conditions but has presented with: • severe intestinal symptoms including severe diarrhea and wasting • A lung X-ray reveals inflammation and fluid in the lungs.
His physician took a sample of fluid from his lungs and isolated the microorganism seen below:
Strepto- coccus Chytrid Myxozoa Ascaris Candida Amanita Giardia Chlamydia Trypanosome Staphylo- coccus C. elegans Protists Fungi Bacteria Animals Remove the new data strip from the envelope 2 and determine where this mystery organism fits within your data matrix
Clicker Q2. Which organism in the matrix is most closely related to the mystery pathogen? • Myxozoa • C. elegans • Candida • Trypanosoma • Staphylococcus
HELP !!!!! • The clinical microbiologists now know this organism is most like Candida. Let’s determine a treatment for Roberto.
Clicker Q3. Use the table below to select the drug you would try first to treat Roberto. • Tamiflu • Sulfisoxazole • Cefazolin • Natamycin
Which drug should be used first? • Natamycin • It makes holes in fungal cell membranes. • The mystery organism is closely related to other fungi. • Sulfisoxazole • It interferes with folic acid synthesis. • Most fungi make folic acid, but not all eukaryotes do. • It is currently unknown if the mystery pathogen makes folic acid. • Why not cefazolin? • Why not tamiflu?