Unit 5: VA/US SOL Review. Unit 5: World War II. The War in Europe. Began with Hitler’s invasion of Poland in 1939 , followed shortly by the Soviet Union’s invasion of Poland from the East US officially neutral for 2yrs while Germany pounded Britain from the air ( Battle of Britain )
Unit 5: VA/US SOL Review Unit 5: World War II
The War in Europe • Began with Hitler’s invasion of Poland in 1939, followed shortly by the Soviet Union’s invasion of Poland from the East • US officially neutral for 2yrs while Germany pounded Britain from the air (Battle of Britain) • In mid-1941, Hitler turned on his ally, Soviet Union, by breaking their non-aggression pact • Though neutral, we tried to help Britain through the Lend-Lease Act, which FDR said was, “Like lending a garden hose to a neighbor whose house is on fire.”
The War in Asia • Japan invaded Manchuria & China; trying to take over the mainland • US refused to recognize Japan’s new conquests, so we imposed an embargo on oil & steal. TENSION!!!! (could cut it with a knife) • Japan attacked Pearl Harbor in retaliation for the embargo, even though we’d been negotiation for peace. • FDR said it, “was a date that will live in infamy,” & he asked Congress to declare war on Japan. • Hitler honored his pact with Japan & declared war on the US.
Axis Strategy • Germany hoped to defeat the Soviet Union quickly to gain access to their oil fields. • Germany hoped to force Britain out of the war by continually bombing them. (Battle of Britain) • Following Pearl Harbor, Japan invaded the Philippines & Indonesia & was going to continue towards Hawaii. They wanted to make the US recognize their territorial gains.
Allied Strategy • America & its allies, Britain & the Soviet Union, followed a “Defeat Hitler First” strategy in Europe. • In the Pacific, we practiced island hopping; going from island to island on our way to Japan.
Minority Participation in WW2 • African-Americans served in segregated units & non-combat military roles. • Tuskegee Airmen • Asian-American regiments (called Nisei) earned a high number of decorations. • Communication codes of the Navajo were used; never broken/ deciphered by the enemy • Mexican-Americans fought in non-segregated units • Minority units usually had high casualties, but won LOTS of awards for bravery in action
Major European Battles in WW2 • Stalingrad • Germans died in the thousands trying to take siege to a Russian city • Prevented Germany from taking Soviet oil fields & turned the tide against Germany in the east • Normandy Landings (D-Day) • American & Allied forces, led by General Eisenhower, tried to take over Normandy beaches on June 6, 1944 • Despite intense German opposition & heavy causalities, we succeeded in liberating western Europe from Hitler.
Major Battles in the Pacific during WW2 • Midway (“Miracle at Midway”) • Americans defeated a much larger Japanese force • If we lost, the Japanese would’ve tried to invade Hawaii • Proved that “island hopping” strategy worked • Iwo-Jima & Okinawa • Brought us closer than ever to Japan, but costs thousands of lives (American & Japanese) • Had to deal with determined Japanese soldiers who often committed suicide than surrender • Hiroshima & Nagasaki • President Harry Truman ordered the a-bomb to be used • After the bombs, Japanese leaders surrendered!
Other WW2 Events • Battle of El Alamein ( in N. Africa) • German forces tried to take Egypt & the Suez canal, but the British stopped them • This defeat stopped Hitler from getting Middle Eastern oil supplies & from attacking the Soviets from the South • Geneva Convention • Tried to establish rules of warfare; but, not followed by all nations. • Savagery of fighting in Pacific: • Bataan Death March, American & Filipino POWs were brutally treated after the surrender of the Philippines. • Japanese soldiers committed suicide instead of surrender • Treatment of POWs in Europe followed ideas of the Geneva Convention
Hitler, Hatred & the Holocaust • Genocide = Systematic & purposeful destruction of a racial, political, religious or cultural group • Final Solution = Hitler’s plan to exterminate all Jews • Affected Groups (by the Holocaust) • Jews • Slavs (Slavic people) • Gypsies • “Undesirables” • Homosexuals • Mentally ill • Politically dissidents • Physically & mentally handicapped
Hitler, Hatred & the Holocaust… • In the Nuremberg trials, Nazi leaders & others were convicted of war crimes. • The Nuremberg trials emphasized individual responsibility for actions during warfare, regardless of orders received. • The trials led to increased demand for a Jewish homeland. (Israel was created not too long after.) **Skip to Pg. 44, we’ll come back to the next activity on Pg. 43 when we’re done!**
WW2 on the Homefront • Economic Resources • Rationing was used on supplies • War bonds & income tax were used to finance the war effort • Businesses were retooled for wartime production • Example: Car manufacturing to tank manufacturing
WW2 on the Homefront… • Human Resources • More women & minorities entered the work force • Citizens volunteered in support of the war • Military Resources: • The draft (selective service) was used to provide soldiers for the army.
Women & Minorities in the War effort • Rosie the Riveter represented the new role of women in the workforce. Women typically participated in non-combat military roles. • African-Americans migrated to cities in search of jobs in war plants, while campaigning for victory in war & equality at home. • Treatment of Japanese-Americans: • Fear & prejudice allowed the US government to take away their civil liberties • There was strong Anti-Japanese prejudice on the West coast. False belief that Japanese-Americans were aiding the enemy • Relocated to internment camps. The Supreme Court upheld the government’s actions. A public apology was eventually issued.
Media in WW2 • During WW2, the media & entertainment industries saw their role as supporting the war effort by promoting nationalism (patriotism). • The US government maintained strict censorship of reporting of the war. • Public morale & ad campaigns kept Americans focused on the war effort. • The entertainment industry produced movies, plays & shows that boosted morale & patriotic support for the war effort as well as portrayed the enemy in stereotypical ways. • Captain America
Chronological Order Activity-Fill in the events that are missing Great Depression (1930s) • Sherman Anti-Trust Act • ________________ • Spanish-American War • Teddy Roosevelt’s Square Deal • _________________ • 17th Amendment • Archduke Franz Ferdinand assassinated- WWI begins in Europe • Treaty of Versailles signed • ____________________ • Immigration Restriction Act of 1921 • Smoot-Hawley Act (1930) • _____________________ • New Deal • ________________________ • ________________________ • Bombing of Pearl Harbor • _____________________ • El Alamein • Stalingrad • _________________ • Iwo-Jima & Okinawa • ___________________ • ________________________ Pullman strike occurs (1894) World War II begins (1939) Hitler invades Soviet Union (mid 1941) NAACP founded (1909) Bataan Death March begins (1942) D-Day (June 6, 1944) Women get to vote (19th amendment) Bombing of Hiroshima & Nagasaki Nuremberg Trials begin (1945)
Question time!!! Show me what you know
During World War II, the purpose of posters such as this was to --- • Motivate American women to enter the work force in defense factories • Encourage civilians to become members of the armed forces • Show how Americans on the homefront could contribute to the war effort • Pressure industries to dedicate their resources to war manufacturing
Bushido: a feudal-military Japanese code of behavior valuing honor above life -Merriam-Webster dictionary 2. During World War II, which action was an example of this code of behavior? • Japanese civilians welcoming Allied troops • Japanese captors treating American POWs humanely • Japanese emperor accepting the terms of unconditional surrender • Japanese troops committing suicide rather than surrendering
3. The members of the World War II Nisei regiment were primarily--- • Mexican Americans • Japanese Americans • German Americans • Italian Americans
4. The Lend-Lease Act was passed by the United States Congress in response to increased--- • Concern about German aggression in Europe • Anger over the Japanese invasion of China • Concern about Italian demands in North Africa • Fear over the German pact with the Soviet Union
5. During World War II, the role of the Selective Service System in the United States was to --- • Draft military personnel • Ration manufactured goods • Increase industrial productivity • Replace factory workers
6. Which effect did United States participation in World War II have on the home front? • An increase in volunteers for the war effort • The end of racial segregation in the South • A decline in farm income due to war rationing • The growth of isolationism in the Midwest
7. The United States interned many Japanese Americans during World War II because of--- • Their refusal to be deported • A fear they would aid the enemy • A concern over violent protest from them • Their refusal to be drafted into the military
8. Which New Deal program attempted to protect Americans from the instability of banks during the Great Depression? • Works Progress Administration • Tennessee Valley Authority • Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation • Agricultural Adjustment Administration