Behavioral Ecology Chapter 51. A. P. Biology Liberty Senior High School Mr. Knowles. Why study animal behavior?. Understand Human nervous system. Child development. Human communication. Natural selection. Animal Behavior.
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A. P. Biology
Liberty Senior High School
The How?- hormone levels, nerve impulses and pathways-Proximate Causation.
The Why?- adaptive value to animal’s survival or reproductive success- Ultimate Causation.
Insect--> Frog’s Tongue
Nature: Triumph of Life- Brain Power movie
1. Nonassociative Learning: animal forms no association between stimulus and response (habituation = no +/- reinforcement). Ex. Young birds in nest.
2. Associative Learning- behavioral alteration that involves an association between stimulus and response. The behavior is modified or conditioned (classical conditioning).
Example: Young predators learning to identify acceptable prey.
In which an arbitrary stimulus is associated with a reward or punishment
Influx of alarm substances
Influx of water alone
Influx of pike odor
Relative activity level
Show me the video!
Nova: Secrets of the Wild Child
Showed how digger wasps use landmarks to find the entrances to their nests
A female digger wasp excavates and cares for four or five separate underground nests, flying to each nest daily with food for the single larva in the nest. To test his hypothesis that the wasp uses visual landmarks to locate the nests, Niko Tinbergen marked one nest with a ring of pinecones.
When the wasp returned, she flew to the center of the pinecone circle instead of to the nearby nest. Repeating the experiment with many wasps, Tinbergen obtained the same results.
The experiment supported the hypothesis that digger wasps use landmarks to keep track of their nests.
After the mother visited the nest and flew away, Tinbergen moved the pinecones a few feet to one side of the nest.
-by observing the behavior of other animals.
pigeons associate food by color rather than sound.
(a) A male three-spined stickleback fish shows its red underside.
(b) The realistic model at the top, without a red underside, produces no aggressive response in a male three-spined stickleback fish. Theother models, with red undersides, produce strong responses.
BEHAVIOR: A male stickleback fish attacks other male sticklebacks that invade its nesting territory.
PROXIMATE CAUSE: The red belly of the intruding male acts as a sign stimulus
that releases aggression in a male stickleback.
ULTIMATE CAUSE: By chasing away other male sticklebacks, a male decreasesthe chance that eggs laid in his nesting territory will be fertilized by another male.
readiness to mate,
location of food,
When a minnow or catfish is injured sticklebacks that invade its nesting territory.
An alarm substance in the fish’s skin disperses in the water, inducing a fright response among fish in the area
(a) Minnows are widely dispersed in an aquarium before an alarm substance is introduced.
(b) Within seconds of the alarm substance being introduced, minnows aggregate near thebottom of the aquarium and reduce their movement.
Figure 51.9a, b
Experiments with various insects
Have shown that courtship songs are under genetic control
Charles Henry, Lucía Martínez, and ent Holsinger crossed males and females of Chrysoperla plorabunda and Chrysoperla johnsoni, two morphologically identical species of lacewings that sing different courtship songs.
SONOGRAMSChrysoperla plorabunda parent
Standard repeating unit
Chrysoperla johnsoni parent Volley period
Standard repeating unit
The researchers recorded and compared the songs of the male and female parents with those of the hybrid offspring that had been raised in isolation from other lacewings.
F sticklebacks that invade its nesting territory.1 hybrids, typical phenotype
The F1 hybrid offspring sing a song in which the length of the standard repeating unit is similar to that sung by the Chrysoperla plorabunda parent, but the volley period, that is, the interval between vibration volleys, is more similar to that of the Chrysoperla johnsoni parent.
Standard repeating unit
The results of this experiment indicate that the songs sung by Chrysoperla plorabunda and Chrysoperla johnsoni are under genetic control.
Influence of cross-fostering on male mice sticklebacks that invade its nesting territory.
Desert sticklebacks that invade its nesting territory.grassland population
Time to attack (seconds)
FieldVariation in Aggressive Behavior
Such competition may involve sticklebacks that invade its nesting territory.agonistic behavior:
An often ritualized contest that determines which competitor gains access to a resource.
Male competition for mates:
Is a source of intrasexual selection that can reduce variation among males.
Discovery: Anatomy of a Shark Bite video
Sow bugs: sticklebacks that invade its nesting territory.
Become more active in dry areas and less active in humid areas
Moist site under leaf
Dry open area
(a) Kinesis increases the chance that a sow bug will encounter and stay in a moist environment.
Many stream fish exhibit positive sticklebacks that invade its nesting territory.rheotaxis
Where they automatically swim in an upstream direction
(b) Positive rheotaxis keeps trout facing into the current, the direction from which most food comes.
BEHAVIOR: Young geese follow and imprint on their mother. sticklebacks that invade its nesting territory.
PROXIMATE CAUSE: During an early, critical developmental stage, the young geese observe their mother moving away from them and calling.
ULTIMATE CAUSE: On average, geese that follow and imprint on their mother receive more care and learn necessary skills, and thus have a greater chance of surviving than those that do not follow their mother.
Conservation biologists have taken advantage of imprinting sticklebacks that invade its nesting territory.
In programs to save the whooping crane from extinction