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Department of Psychology s Institute for Simulation and Training University of Central Florida PowerPoint Presentation
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Department of Psychology s Institute for Simulation and Training University of Central Florida

Department of Psychology s Institute for Simulation and Training University of Central Florida

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Department of Psychology s Institute for Simulation and Training University of Central Florida

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  1. Vigilance and Sustained Attention P.A. Hancock Presentation for the Class of 2008 Human Factors II EXP 6257 January 31st, 2008 Department of Psychology s Institute for Simulation and Training University of Central Florida Orlando, FL 32826

  2. Mackworth was the founder of modern vigilance research, a term he took from the neurologist, Sir Henry Head. His original experimental research was triggered by WW II concerns for radar operators looking for submarines out over the Bay of Biscay. His original monograph on the topic, republished in Sinako’s text, still represents the best introduction to the area. Mackworth was the first to formally identified the ‘vigilance decrement function’ which remains pertinent to all operations in automated and semi-automated systems today. His work on stress effects was also pivotal. He worked at the APU Cambridge for part of his career, as did many other influential scientists who have had a fundamental impact on applied human performance theory. Others include Broadbent, Poulton, Baddeley, Wilkinson, etc. Norman Mackworth

  3. The Vigilance Decrement

  4. Theories of Vigilance Inhibition theory (behaviorism) Expectancy Theory Arousal Theory Resource Theory

  5. Raja Parasuraman Raja Parasuraman has long-standing research programs in two areas, human factors and cognitive neuroscience. The first concerns human performance in human-machine systems, particularly with respect to the influence of automation and computer technology on attention, memory, and vigilance. His second area of research is the cognitive neuroscience of attention, where he has conducted studies using information-processing paradigms, event-related brain potentials and functional brain imaging (PET, fMRI), both in normal populations and in relation to aging and Alzheimer’s disease. He also has a research thrust in the molecular genetics of cognition, specifically attention and working memory. Finally, he has recently combined his interests in human factors (ergonomics) and cognitive neuroscience by developing the field of neuroergonomics, which he defines as the study of brain and behavior at work.

  6. The Vigilance Taxonomy Task Type: Simultaneous vs. Successive Modality: Visual vs. Auditory Source Complexity: Single vs. Multiple Event Rate: Slow vs. Fast

  7. Psychophysics of Vigilance First Order Factors: Immediate physical properties of the stimulus Modality Signal Salience (Conspicuity) Event Rate Second Order Factors: Characteristics of the stimulus inferred by the observer based on experience with the task Signal Uncertainty (Spatial & Temporal)

  8. Psychophysics of Vigilance: Modality

  9. Psychophysics of Vigilance: Event Rate

  10. Psychophysics of Vigilance: Signal Salience

  11. Psychophysics of Vigilance: Signal Duration

  12. Overall Workload as a Function of Periods of Watch

  13. Weighted Frustration as a Function of Periods of Watch

  14. Workload and Performance Note. A= Auditory Task; V= Visual Task SIM = Simultaneous Task; SUC = Successive Task T x C = interaction between task type and display complexity

  15. Workload and Performance

  16. Task-Based Stress and Performance Note. A= Auditory Task; V= Visual Task SIM = Simultaneous Task; SUC = Successive Task T x C = interaction between task type and display complexity

  17. Task-Based Stress and Performance

  18. Distress Tense Arousal Hedonic Tone Confidence & Control DSSQ Task Engagement Energetic Arousal Motivation Concentration Worry Self-focused Attention Self-Esteem Task-related Cognitive Interference Task-irrelevant Cognitive Interference

  19. Pre- and Post-Vigil Scores for the DSSQ Scales

  20. Input 1 Output Input 2 Input 1 Output Input 2 Input 1 Output Input 2 Output Input 1 Input 2 Integration Task Focused Attention Task Neutral Event Critical Signal Critical Signal Neutral Event Configural Bar Graph Display Configural Displays and Vigilance

  21. Configural Displays and Vigilance Input 1 Input 2 Output Output Input 1 Input 2 Input 1 Output Input 2 Input 1 Output Input 2 Integration Task Focused Attention Task Neutral Event Critical Signal Critical Signal Neutral Event Non-Configural Bar Graph Display

  22. Focused Attention Task Integration Task Input 1 Output Input 2 Input 1 Output Input 2 Input 1 Output Input 2 Input 1 Output Input 2 Critical Signal Neutral Event Neutral Event Critical Signal Object Configural Display Configural Displays and Vigilance

  23. Sensitivity as a function of periods of Watch for the integration task 1 0.98 0.96 0.94 0.92 A' 0.9 conint 0.88 nonint objinit 0.86 0.84 0.82 0.8 1 2 3 4 Periods of Watch (6-min)

  24. Sensitivity as a function of periods of Watch for the focused attention task 1 0.98 0.96 0.94 0.92 A' 0.9 conf nonf 0.88 objf 0.86 0.84 0.82 0.8 1 2 3 4 Periods of Watch (6-min)

  25. Response Bias as a function of periods of Watch for the integration task 1 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 Response Bias 0.5 conint 0.4 nonint objinit 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 1 2 3 4 Periods of Watch (6-min)

  26. Response Bias as a function of periods of Watch for the focused attention task 1 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 conf Response Bias 0.5 nonf objf 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 1 2 3 4 Periods of Watch (6-min)

  27. Overall Workload as a Function of Display Type