Wireless communications Prof. Sheldon Lou College of Business Administration CSU San Marcos
What will be covered? • Fundamentals • How is information (voice, data) sent and received without wires? • What are Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, WiMax, GPS, and RFID? • How do they work? • How to set up a Wi-Fi network? • What is GPS? How is it used? • What is a Radio Frequency ID? • How do cell phones work? • What is CDMA? • What is GSM? • What is 3G? • What is 4G? • Business opportunities
Wired and Wireless Communications • The main difference: the medium used—wire vs. air • This difference gives rise to the most attractive feature of wireless communications: the mobility. • But it often results in colossal implementation issues and inferior performance for wireless communications. • Bandwidth: number of uses • Security • reliability
Basics for Wireless Communications • How are signals transmitted wirelessly? • How can many users make calls simultaneously (the limited bandwidth problem, TDMA, CDMA, etc.)? • How can interference be reduced (the spread spectrum technology)? • How can security be enhanced? • Voice and data transmissions
What is Wi-Fi? • Wi-Fi (or WiFi—Wireless Fidelity) is actually 802.11, which is a set of standards established by IEEE on wireless local area networks. • The Wireless Ethernet Compatibility Alliance started the Wi-Fi certification program to ensure that equipment claiming 802.11 compliance was genuinely interoperable.
Municipal WiFi Networks • Cover outdoor street level or inside buildings • Large un-served market for Wi-Fi • Public access and municipal government applications • Fast emergency response networks
How will cities use WiFi? • Emergency response network • The Wi-Fi cloud can be dedicated to the fire department or other emergency response teams • When not used for emergencies, the system can provide high speed internet access to the public • Homeland security or police applications • Remote security cameras • Database access from the field • Intelligent traffic control • Use the high bandwidth network to monitor and control traffic • Internet access for underprivileged areas • Wi-Fi could be a cost-effective way to deliver broadband internet access • City owns and controls the infrastructure that “beams” Wi-Fi
Other WiFi Applications • Hospitality • Complete large hotel coverage • Practical coverage of sports arenas and convention centers • Education • Wi-Fi ready, but many un-served venues on campuses • Coverage for large venues and areas between buildings. • Transportation/Logistics • Fleets, manufacturing, railways, large warehouses, shipping yards, train stations and railways • Critical applications already in place
What are business opportunities? • Hardware: Access Point (AP), wireless media center, etc. • Providing Wi-Fi service—hot spots • Installing and managing WLANs
What is WiMax? • It is actually the so-called 802.16 standard set by IEEE. • Acronym for Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access • It was designed as a wireless alternative to cable and DSL for last mile (last km) broadband access. • Use a tall antenna to cover a relatively large area to provide two-directional wideband (high speed) connections wirelessly. Multiple users can be served by one base station. • The new 802.16e amendment can also serve mobile users.
What is Bluetooth? • It is actually the so-called IEEE 802.15 standard • Wire replacement to connect a PC or laptop to its keyboard, mouse, microphone, printer, and notepad. • It handles both voice and data. • Ad hoc networking of several users at short range, e.g., in a conference room
Cellular Systems • The main features of a cell phone system: multiple cells to address the limited bandwidth problem • FDMA, TDMA and CDMA • GSM • 3G and 4G
Some symbols • k (kilo) = 1,000 • kbps = one thousand bits per second • M (mega) = 1 million • Mbps = one million bits per second • MHz = one million Hertz • G (giga) = 1 billion (1,000 million) • Gbps = 1 billion bits per second • GHz = 1 billion Hertz
More terms • Cellular systems: WWAN (Wireless Wide Area Network) • WiMax: WMAN (Wireless Metro Area Network) • WiFi: WLAN (Wireless Local Area Network) • Bluetooth: WPAN (Wireless Personal Area Network)
The future of cell phones • 1G to 3G and 4G • From voice only to data transmission, video, the Internet, etc. • GPS • TV broadcast • Games • Satellite radio