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Chapter 11 Business & Technology. Business Essentials  Mrs. Wilson. BEFORE ACTIVITY – Think-Write-Pair-Share. Why is it easier to manage information with computers than without computers?. 11-1 Computer Systems.

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chapter 11 business technology
Chapter 11Business & Technology

Business Essentials  Mrs. Wilson

before activity think write pair share
BEFORE ACTIVITY – Think-Write-Pair-Share
  • Why is it easier to manage information with computers than without computers?
11 1 computer systems
11-1 Computer Systems
  • In this lesson, an overview of computer systems, along with various software applications, is presented.
computers in society
Computers in Society
  • Computers are everywhere!
    • Grocery stores, retail stores, schools, offices, homes
  • Computers in business are used to store, process, and report information
  • Nearly every business uses some type of computer
  • A company needs quick, efficient processing to control its operating costs, manage resources, and stay competitive
  • Each day in banks, stores, offices, factories, homes, and non-profit organizations, the use of computer systems is expanding
  • Managers must decide how best to use technology to serve the needs of the organization
computers in society1
Computers in Society
  • Computer system – the combination of an input device, a processing unit, memory and storage facilities, and an output device
  • Videos gaming systems, personal digital assistants (PDAs), and automated highway toll collection systems all are examples of computer systems
  • A computer system has 4 basic components:
    • Input device – mouse, keyboard, microphone
    • Processing unit – ‘brain’ of the computer
    • Memory & storage – RAM, ROM, hard drive
    • Output device – monitor, printer, speakers
computers in society2
Computers in Society
  • Hardware – the physical elements of a computer system
    • Examples: keyboard, mouse, camera, speakers, printer
  • Hardware is constantly changing and expanding
    • Most computers today can handle sound, graphics, animation, and video
    • Built-in cameras
  • Software – refers to the instructions that run the computer system
  • Businesses commonly use several types of software
    • Examples: word processing, spreadsheet, database, presentation, and communication programs
computers in society3
Computers in Society
  • Computers in businesses and schools are commonly linked together in a computer network
  • Organizations link computers together so users can share hardware, software, and data
  • The Internet is the largest and best known computer network in the world
  • The Internet is most often used for 2 activities:
    • The exchange of email
    • Accessing the Word Wide Web
input processing
Input & Processing
  • The first major component of a computer system is known as input
  • Data is entered into a computer system with an input device
  • The keyboard and mouse are common input devices
  • Other input devices are often used for specific activities:
    • Touchpads & touch-sensitive screens
    • Controllers & joysticks
    • Light pens
    • Scanners
    • Voice-activated systems
    • Microphones & cameras
input processing1
Input & Processing
  • How does the data entered by the use of an input device become meaningful information?
  • The 2nd major component of a computer system is the processing unit
  • Processing occurs in the central processing unit (CPU)
  • CPU – the control center of the computer, ‘brain’ of the computer
  • In a personal computer, the CPU consists of tiny wafers or chips
  • These chips carry instructions and data using electronic pulses
input processing2
Input & Processing
  • The most common way to give instructions to a computer is with a program – a series of detailed, step-by-step instructions that tell the computer what functions to complete
  • The 2 main types of computer programs:
    • Operating system software – translates commands and allows application programs to interact with the computer’s hardware
      • What is an example of an operating system?
    • Application software – programs that perform specific tasks
      • What is an example of application software?
input processing3
Input & Processing

Types of Application software:

  • Word processing – allows a user to enter, store, revise, and print text
    • Examples: reports, letters, memos, forms
  • Desktop publishing – includes graphics software to prepare charts, graphs, and other visual elements
    • Examples: newsletters, brochures, business cards
  • Database software – an organized collection of information with data items related to one another in some way
    • Examples: iNow
  • Spreadsheet – formats data in columns and rows in order to do calculations
    • Examples: payroll records, financial statements, budgets, grades
  • Presentation software – allows a speaker to show text, data, photos, and other visuals
    • Examples: presentations for school, work, clients
memory output
Memory & Output
  • The 3rd major component of a computer system is memory
  • When in use, a program is stored in the computer’s memory
  • This memory within the computer is also called internal or primary storage
  • During processing, both the program and any data entered with an input device are stored in memory
memory output1
Memory & Output
  • Primary storage cannot hold all of the programs and all of the data needed by computer users
  • Therefore, external or auxiliary storage that is not part of memory is available for storing both programs and data
  • A hard disk (or hard drive) is housed inside the computer allowing storage of billions of characters
  • CDs, DVDs, and flash drives are examples of commonly used auxiliary storage devices
input processing4
Input & Processing
  • The final component of a computer system is known as output
  • This element is of greatest interest to most people
  • Your score on a video game, the results of a test, or the sales for a new product are important outcomes of data processing activities
    • There are 4 common types of output:
      • Text output
      • Graphics output
      • Audio output
      • Video output
  • Output devices present data in a form that can be retrieved later or may be communicated immediately
  • Common output devices are monitors, printers, and speakers
let s review
Let’s Review!
  • Give an example of an input device.
  • Give an example of an output device.
  • What are the 2 main types of computer programs?
  • 1 million bytes = a __________
11 2 business applications of technology
11-2 Business Applications of Technology
  • Management information systems and other uses of technology, including e-commerce, are discussed in this lesson.
management information systems
Management Information Systems
  • Managers need information to make business decisions
  • Management Information System (MIS) – a coordinated system of processing and reporting information in an organization
  • The 4 main components of an MIS are:
    • Gathering data
    • Analyzing data
    • Storing data
    • Reporting results
  • These activities allow an organization to obtain needed information in 4 main categories:
    • Financial information (p275)
    • Production & inventory information
    • Marketing & sales information
    • Human resources information
management information systems1
Management Information Systems
  • The information for an MIS comes from several sources:
    • External data sources are outside an organization
      • Examples: Financial institutions, government agencies, & customers
    • Internal data sources provide input from within the organization
      • Examples: accounting records, inventory information, & company sales figures
  • The operation of the MIS involves the following steps:
      • Identify the information needs of the organization
      • Obtain facts, figures, and other data
      • Process, analyze, and organize data in a useful manner
      • Distribute information reports to those who make decisions
      • Update data files as needed
  • Computer networks are often used in an MIS to distribute information to managers, employees, and others
technology in service industries
Technology in Service Industries
  • More than 60% of workers in the U.S. are employed in service industries
    • Public Service
      • Government agencies use computers to keep records (IRS, military, Social Security)
    • Education
      • Computers have become vital teaching devices in schools and offices
      • Computer-assisted instruction (CAI) – the use of computers to help people learn or improve skills at their own pace
    • Health Care
      • Computers widely used in hospital and other medical facilities
      • Uses range from keeping patient records to monitoring medications during surgery
    • Financial Services
      • Electronic banking and other financial services have made it possible for consumers to do business beyond usual banking hours
      • Examples: Paying bills online, checking your credit report, and selling stocks and bonds
e commerce
  • E-commerce – refers to conducting business transactions using the Internet or other technology
    • Have you ever bought or sold an item online?
  • Almost every function of a company has been adapted to e-commerce
  • The most common e-commerce activities include:
    • Providing product information
    • Promoting a company
    • Selling online
    • Conducting market research
    • Making payments
    • Obtaining parts and supplies
    • Tracking shipments
  • E-commerce opens up opportunities to companies previously limited by geographic or financial restrictions
let s review1
Let’s Review!
  • What is the 1st component of a management information system?
  • What is the use of computers to help people learn or improve skills at their own pace?
  • What is e-commerce?
11 3 other technology issues
11-3 Other Technology Issues
  • This lesson considers some of the workplace and personal applications of technology, along with various social concerns.
workplace technology
Workplace Technology
  • Computers are present in almost every business situation
  • They help improve efficiency and productivity
  • Robotics – mechanical devices programmed to do routine tasks, such as those in many factories
    • Example: assembly line work that requires repetitive tasks – see video!
  • Early robots did only simple tasks such as tightening a bolt on an automobile
  • Today, robots exist that can see, hear, smell, and feel
  • Robots can work 24 hours a day
  • They can work in dangerous situations
  • The use of robots is also growing to include automated checkout clerks, airline ticket agents, and hotel desk clerks
workplace technology1
Workplace Technology
  • Telecommuting – involves the activities of a worker using a computer at home to do a job
  • Telecommuting saves travel time and costs
  • It results in less traffic along with reduced noise and air pollution
  • What would be some disadvantages to the employer and employee?
home personal technology
Home & Personal Technology
  • Computers not only change the way you work, but technology also affects almost all aspects of life
    • School & homework (p282)
    • Home robotics
    • Household record keeping
social concerns of technology
Social Concerns of Technology
  • New technology will continue to expand the potential uses of computers in business
  • New software will eliminate some jobs while increasing job growth in others
  • Expanded computer use has resulted in concerns about health and safety, criminal activities, and privacy
  • Employment trends
    • Many people think computers are taking away their jobs
    • What is actually occurring is a shift in the job duties and skills needed to work in business and industry
    • Computer literacy is vital to each person’s economic survival
  • Health concerns
    • Some people encounter discomfort resulting from on-the-job activities
      • Examples: eyestrain, vision problems, muscle tension, nerve damage, carpal tunnel syndrome
social concerns of technology1
Social Concerns of Technology
  • Computer crime
    • Widespread computer use has led to an increase in white-collar crime – illegal acts carried out by office or professional workers while at work
    • Workers may steal money, information, or computer time through improper use of databases or illegal access to computer systems
    • Piracy – stealing or illegally copying software packages or information
    • Computer virus – program code hidden in a system that can later do damage to software or stored data
  • Privacy concerns
    • Identity theft has become a major concern for consumers and companies
    • Thieves obtain information online about a person
let s review2
Let’s Review!
  • What is telecommuting?
  • How have computers affect our lives at home?
  • What are some examples of concerns with the use of technology today?
after activity review list
AFTER ACTIVITY – Review & List
  • List the 4 basic components of a computer system.
  • Identify each of the following items as hardware or software:
    • Monitor
    • Word processing program
    • Chips
    • Keyboard
    • Operating system program
    • Disk drive
    • Mouse
    • Printer