Ch. 18. The Politics of Protest (1960-1980). Tom Hayden, 2007. I . Youth Actions. A. Students for a Democratic Society (SDS). 1. Port Huron Statement (1962) – Stop apathy & letting country be run by big corporations. 2. Tom Hayden. .
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I. Youth Actions.
A. Students for a Democratic Society (SDS).
1. Port Huron Statement (1962) – Stop apathy & letting country be run by big corporations.
2. Tom Hayden.
These UC-Berkeley students are protesting the government's actions in Vietnam.
1. Communes – Group living.
This was the
center of the
hippy world in
Communes – Group living arrangement where they shared everything.
Haight-Ashbury district in San Francisco – Hippy destination in mid-1960’s.
Andy Warhol, “Hippies.”
Tie-dyed shirts; Andy Warhol, Hair musical in 1967.
The peace symbol was developed
in the UK as a logo for the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament, and was
embraced by U.S. anti-war protestors
in the 1960s
► “Hippies.” The Beatles perform “I want to hold your hand” on the Ed Sullivan Show (1964).
► Bob Dylan and Jimi Hendrix.
THE SUMMER “Hippies.”
The Summer of Love refers to the summer of 1967, when nearly 100,000 hippies converged on the Haight-Ashbury neighborhood of San Francisco, creating a phenomenon of cultural and political rebellion. It was a melting pot of music, psychedelic drugs, sexual freedom, creative expression, and politics. The Summer of Love became a defining moment of the 1960s, as the hippie counterculture movement came into public awareness.
WOODSTOCK !! “Hippies.”
Rachel Carson, 1940
The Three Mile
in 1979 was the
accident in the
history of the U.S.
Three Mile Island Nuclear Generating Station consisted
of two pressurized water reactors each inside its own
containment building and connected cooling towers.
TMI-2, suffered a partial meltdown, is in the background.
1990 almost 100 tons of
radioactive fuel were removed
from the site.
The full damage to the reactor core
was not known for many years
after the accident.
II “Hippies.”. The Feminist Movement.
A. Feminism – Men & women equal politically, economically, and socially.
B. Women’s Movement Reawakens. “Hippies.”
1. Equal Pay Act (1963) – Same pay for same job.
2. Betty Friedan – The Feminine Mystique (1963).
was an American
and writer, best
known for starting
the "Second Wave“
of feminism through
the writing of The
Betty Friedan’s The Feminine Mystique (1963).
Shirley Chisholm – 1st African American woman in Congress (NY) in 1968.
3. National Organization for Women (NOW) – 1966, Bring women into mainstream of U.S. society.
NOW Organizing Conference, October, 1966.
NOW was created by Betty Friedan.
4. Title IX (1972) – Schools can’t discriminate against females.
5. Roe vs. Wade (1973) – Supreme Court ruled that states can’t regulate abortions (first 3 months).
Title IX – no school discrimination from admission to athletics.
III against females.. New Approaches to Civil Rights.
A. Hispanic Americans Organize.
Raymond L. Telles, the first Hispanic elected mayor (1957), El Paso, Texas.
Hispanic immigrants protest for
civil rights in Birmingham, Alabama.
1. United Farm Workers (UFW) – Rights for farm workers. against females.
a) Started by César Chávez and Dolores Huerta.
Cesar Chavez lived on a small farm near
Yuma, Arizona until his family lost it during
the Great Depression and moved to CA.
At age 10, Chávez became a migrant farm
worker, laboring in fields and vineyards.
Early 1960’s, combined groups to organize against CA growers to demand union recognition, better wages, and better benefits.
National Boycott of table grapes (no uvas) with help from AFL-CIO, students, churches, and civil rights groups; about 17 million people stopped buying them; market plunged.
Started in 1965 and ended in 1970.
The UFW is a labor union that evolved from unions founded in 1962 by César Chávez, Philip Vera Cruz, Dolores Huerta, and Larry Itliong. This union changed from a workers' rights organization that helped workers get unemployment insurance to that of a union of farmworkers almost overnight, when the National Farm Workers Association (NFWA) went out on strike in support of the mostly Filipino farmworkers of the Agricultural Workers Organizing Committee (AWOC).
2. in 1962 by César Chávez, Philip Vera Cruz, Dolores Huerta, and Larry Itliong. This union changed from a workers' rights organization that helped workers get unemployment insurance to that of a union of farmworkers almost overnight, when the National Farm Workers Association (NFWA) went out on strike in support of the mostly Filipino farmworkers of the Agricultural Workers Organizing Committee (AWOC).La Raza Unida (the united people) – 1969, Texas group led by José Angel Gutiérrez for better job training, banking services, and bilingual education.
The Stonewall riots were a series of
violent conflicts between New York City
police officers and 2,000 gay
and transgender people that began
during the early morning of June 28,
1969, and lasted five days. The
Rebellion was a watershed moment for
the worldwide gay rights movement.
The Stonewall Inn
President Nixon movement.
President Nixon greets Chinese Party
Chairman Mao Zedong (left) in a historic
visit to the People's Republic of China, 1972.
“silent majority” of conservatives.
better relationships with China and the Soviet Union.
Yes, we movement.
skipped section I.
Chapter 19, Sec II. The ‘Watergate’ Scandal.
A. President Richard Nixon forced to resign (1974).
The Watergate Hotel and office
complex in Washington, D.C.
President Nixon sought reelection amid a scandal over the Watergate
“People have got to know whether movement.
or not their President is a crook.
Well, I'm not a crook. I've earned
everything I've got.”
-- President Nixon
A break-in at the Watergate complex (Dem National Committee (DNC) headquarters) soon developed into a political scandal.
Re-election was not assured; Nixon supporters tried to steal information from the DNC (June 17, 1972).
One of the burglars, James McCord, was an ex-CIA official and on the Committee for the Reelection of the President (CRP).
Cover-up – Nixon administration officials began destroying incriminating evidence and provided false testimony to investigators.
movement. Nixon may not have ordered the break-in, but he did order the cover-up; Asked the CIA to get the FBI to stop investigating – it would threaten national security; Nixon denied any involvement.
Counsel to the President, John Dean, said that the Attorney General John Mitchell ordered the break-in and Nixon was involved in cover up; Nixon still denied everything.
White House aid Alexander Butterfield informed the Senate committee of Nixon’s tape recording system.
Nixon pleaded Executive privilege and refused to give up tapes; Nixon fires special prosecutor Cox (wanted Nixon’s tapes); bad publicity.
The Vice President, Spiro Agnew resigns in disgrace due to discovery that he accepted bribes from state contractors while governor of Maryland and still took bribes as VP.
Gerald Ford, leader of the Hose of Representatives, is now VP.
journalists, etc. New special prosecutor demanded unedited tapes (not just edited transcripts); Nixon reluctantly agrees.
Several days later, Senate judiciary committee votes to impeach Nixon (obstruction of justice, misuse of federal agencies, and defied the orders of Congress).
Unedited tapes revealed that 6 days after break-in, Nixon ordered the CIA to stop the FBI’s investigation.
Aug 9, 1974, Nixon resigns in disgrace to avoid impeachment.
Nixon departing the White House
aboard a helicopter after resigning, 1974.
Gerald Ford went from journalists, etc.
Minority Speaker of the House
to the President between 1973-74,
without being voted to either office.
Once president, Ford issued a full
pardon to Nixon for any wrongdoing
while he was president.
The Watergate scandal left such an
impact on the national and international
consciousness that many scandals since
Then are labeled with the suffix "-gate".
Gerald Ford now the 38th president.
Affects: A number of new laws to limit campaign contributions, have more financial disclosure, means of appointing an independence counsel for investigations, but left many with deep distrust of public officials, lack of respect for presidency, and skeptical about politics.
OPEC nations still account for 2/3
of the world's oil reserves, and, as of
March 2008, 35.6% of the world's oil
production, giving them considerable
control over the global market.
On October 6, 1973, Syria journalists, etc.
& Egypt launched a military
attack on Israel starting the
Yom Kippur War.The GAS Shortage !!
In the U.S., drivers of vehicles with license plates having an odd number as the last digit
were allowed to purchase gasoline for their cars only on odd-numbered days of the month,
while drivers of vehicles with even-numbered plates were allowed on even-numbered days
Gas rationing system is announced in an afternoon newspaper being read at a service station with a sign in the background stating no gas is available in 1974.
The peanut farmer