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Chapter 11. Sex and Gender. What We Will Learn. To what extent does biology influence maleness and femaleness? Are males dominant over females in all societies? How similar are gender roles throughout the world? Do women and men in the same culture communicate differently?

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Chapter 11 l.jpg

Chapter 11

Sex and Gender


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What We Will Learn

  • To what extent does biology influence maleness and femaleness?

  • Are males dominant over females in all societies?

  • How similar are gender roles throughout the world?

  • Do women and men in the same culture communicate differently?

  • How can extreme gender ideology lead to the exploitation of women?


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Gender

  • Gender refers to the way members of the two sexes are perceived, evaluated, and expected to behave.

  • Sexual dimorphism refers to the physiological differences between men and women.

  • U.S. culture recognizes only two genders, male and female, but other cultures recognize a combined male/female gender.


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Gender

  • Masculinity

    • The social definition of maleness, which varies from society to society.

  • Femininity

    • The social definition of femaleness, which varies from culture to culture.


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Femininity

  • A nine year old girl from Vermont in camouflage is being taught to hunt black bear with her own 20-gauge shotgun.

  • This is certainly an atypical definition of femininity in the United States.


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Gender

  • This Hijra man, who presents himself as being “like a woman,” is an excellent example of the socially constructed basis for sexuality.


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Human Sexuality

  • The sexual practices of humans, usually varying from culture to culture.

  • Extramarital activity

    • Sexual activity outside marriage.

  • Sex drive

    • Desire for sexual activity.


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Question

  • _______ refers to cultural ideas concerning the way members of two sexes are perceived, evaluated, and expected to behave.

    • Gender

    • Masculine and feminine

    • Sexual dimorphism

    • Sex


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Answer: a

  • Gender refers to cultural ideas concerning the way members of two sexes are perceived, evaluated, and expected to behave.


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Question

  • In some cultures, ________ are rigidly defined, while in others they overlap to a considerable degree.

    • gender definitions

    • gender roles

    • sexual roles

    • sexuality rules


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Answer: b

  • In some cultures, gender roles are rigidly defined, while in others they overlap to a considerable degree.


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Sexuality

  • Heterosexual

    • A person who is sexually attracted to people of the opposite sex.

  • Homosexual

    • A person who is sexually attracted to people of the same sex.


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Sexuality

  • Gentlemen, start your engines. Such performance enhancing drugs as Viagra—designed to treat impotence in older men—are being used today recreationally by men of all ages.


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Gender Roles

  • Men have greater body mass and strength and are better equipped for hunting, warfare, and land clearing.

  • Women do tasks that are compatible with pregnancy, breastfeeding, and child care.


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Gender Roles

  • This baseball player engaged in child care in the locker room is just one example of changing gender roles in the United States.


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Hunting large animals

Fishing as a primary task

Tending large animal herds

Mining, smelting, and metalworking

Conducting warfare

Boat building

Working wood and stone

Clearing/preparing the land for crops

Making musical instruments

Making nets and ropes

Division of Labor (Worldwide Trends) - Generally Male Tasks


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Division of Labor (Worldwide Trends) - Generally Male and Female Tasks

  • Fishing as a secondary task

  • Tending small animals

  • Planting and harvesting crops

  • House building

  • Making certain craft items

  • Local market trading


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Division of Labor (Worldwide Trends) - Generally Female TasksFemale Tasks

  • Childcare

  • Collecting fuel and water

  • Food preparation

  • Gathering wild plants, fruits, and nuts

  • Making clothes

  • Household maintenance


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Gender Roles Female Tasks

  • Traditional gender roles are sometimes reversed in 21st century America, as with this female fire fighter.


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Gender Roles Female Tasks

  • In the United States, it is estimated that approximately 20% of all preschool children are cared for primarily by their fathers.


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Sexual Asymmetry Female Tasks

  • The universal tendency of women to be in a subordinate position in their social relationships with men.


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Genderlects Female Tasks

  • Linguistic gender differences.


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Gender Stratification Female Tasks

  • A division in society where all members are hierarchically ranked according to gender.

  • Purdah

    • Rules involving domestic seclusion and veiling for women in small towns in Iraq, Iran, and Syria.


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Gender Stratification Female Tasks

  • In some societies women are excluded from certain areas that are “for men only,” such as this all men's bar in Perth, Australia.


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Gender Equality Female Tasks

  • Among the Minangkabau of west Sumatra, decision making among wives and husbands is relatively equal and cooperative.


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Gender Ideology Female Tasks

  • Thoughts and values that legitimize gender roles, statuses, and customary behavior.

    • In some African societies, men’s physical well-being is thought to be jeopardized by contact with a woman’s menstrual discharge.

    • In Bangladesh, men are associated with the right side and women with the left side, a dichotomy that also denotes purity–pollution, good–bad, and authority– submission.


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Gender and Education Female Tasks

  • This boy from Gambia (west Africa) is much more likely to attend school than his younger sister.


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Feminization of Poverty Female Tasks

  • Refers to the high proportion of female-headed families below the poverty line, which may result from the high proportion of women found in occupations with low prestige and income.


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Question Female Tasks

  • ______ is a system of thoughts and values that legitimize gender roles, statuses, and customary behavior.

    • Gender ideology

    • Gender asymmetry

    • Gender identity

    • Gender roles


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Answer: a Female Tasks

  • Gender ideology is a system of thoughts and values that legitimize gender roles, statuses, and customary behavior.




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Women and Economic Equality Empowerment Measure

  • Although they assume a subordinate position in their family lives, some African women are able to maintain considerable powers, authority, and autonomy by virtue of their economic activities, as with this vegetable vendor in Ethiopia.


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Exploitation Caused By Gender Ideology Empowerment Measure

  • Male gender bias

    • A preference found in some societies for sons rather than daughters.

  • Female infanticide

    • The killing of female children

  • Nutritional deprivation

    • A form of child abuse involving withholding food; can retard learning, physical development, or social adjustment.


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Honor Killings Empowerment Measure

  • A euphemism referring to a practice found in various Middle Eastern cultures whereby women are put to death at the hands of their own family members because they are thought to have dishonored the family.


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Dowry Death Empowerment Measure

  • The killing of a wife by her in-laws if the wife’s parents fail to pay additional dowry.


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Violence Against Women Empowerment Measure

  • Physical violence against women, the result of gender ideology,continues to be a problem in the United States.


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Gender in the U.S. Empowerment Measure

  • Breadwinner

    • A traditional gender role found in the United States that views males as being responsible for the economic support and protection of the family.

  • Housewife

    • A traditional gender role found in the United States that views females as responsible for child-rearing and domestic activities.


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Gender in the U.S Empowerment Measure

  • Double workload

    • Situation in which employed married women, particularly those with children, are both wage employed and primarily responsible for housework and child care.

  • Occupational segregation

    • The predominance of one gender in certain occupations.


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Men’s Lifespan Empowerment Measure

  • Men tend to have a shorter life span than women, in part because they engage in more high-risk occupations.


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