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Essential Question. What were the characteristics of New England, Middle, and Southern colonies?. The 13 Colonies. Types of Colonies. Royal Colony – controlled by the king Proprietary Colony –land granted to a group of private owners for development. Joint Stock Company.

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essential question
Essential Question
  • What were the characteristics of

New England, Middle, and Southern colonies?

types of colonies
Types of Colonies
  • Royal Colony – controlled by the king
  • Proprietary Colony –land granted to a group of private owners for development
joint stock company
Joint Stock Company
  • Pooled money of many investors
  • Merchants could trade with and colonize other parts of the world
new england
New England
  • At first – peaceful relations
  • Taught Puritans how to grow corn and survive the harsh winters
pequot war
Pequot War
  • Fighting erupted after two Massachusetts traders were killed in Pequot territory
king philip s war
King Philip’s War
  • 1675 – MA arrested and executed three Wampanoag for murder
  • Metacomet – Wampanoag chief also known as King Philip who led the fighting
king philip s war1
King Philip’s War
  • 1678 - colonist victory – ended Indian uprisings in New England
  • Turning point for settlements
virginia
Virginia
  • Tribal confederation led by Chief Powhatan
  • Traded with the colonists
opechancanough
Opechancanough
  • Powhatan’s brother
  • Attacked Jamestown in March 1622 and killed 300 colonists
headright system
Headright System
  • 50 acres of land promised to anyone who would settle in the colony
indentured servants
Indentured Servants
  • Agreed to work for a landowner in the colonies for 4-7 years
  • Received passage to America and land
bacon s rebellion
Bacon’s Rebellion
  • Small farmers in Virginia rebelled against the rich who controlled the colony
  • Led by Nathaniel Bacon
southern slavery
Southern Slavery
  • Plantation System
  • Huge farms raised cash crops – needed large numbers of laborers
middle passage
Middle Passage
  • The route taken by ships carrying slaves from Africa to North America
africans
Africans
  • Isolated in the South
  • Kept African culture, languages, music alive
gullah
Gullah
  • Rice plantation slaves in South Carolina created their own language
  • Mix of African and English
new england society
New England Society
  • Small farms
  • Cities for Atlantic trade (Boston)
new england education
New England Education
  • First colony with public education - Massachusetts
  • Two of the nation’s earliest colleges – Harvard and Yale
german immigrants
German Immigrants
  • Settled in Pennsylvania
  • Pennsylvania Dutch
  • Many moved into the Shenandoah Valley (VA)
scots irish
Scots Irish
  • Settled in PA
  • Moved west to the backcountry or the southern colonies
jewish community
Jewish Community
  • Fled persecution in Europe
  • First arrived in New Amsterdam (NYC)
  • Also lived in Charles Town and Savannah
great britain and the colonies
Great Britain and the Colonies
  • Salutary Neglect
  • English government let the American colonists govern themselves
  • Created representative governments
house of burgesses
House of Burgesses
  • Virginia
  • First elected legislative body in the colonies
  • White males as voters
mayflower compact
Mayflower Compact
  • New England colonists first form of government
  • Government derived its power from the people of the colony
new england government
New England Government
  • Town meeting – local citizens met and voted on issues
  • Direct democracy
fundamental orders of connecticut
Fundamental Orders of Connecticut
  • Body of the laws for the colony (1639)
  • All adult men could vote
  • Limited powers of government
the great awakening
The Great Awakening
  • Religious revival movement
  • Stressed an individual’s devotion and emotional connection to God
revivals
Revivals
  • Large public meetings for preaching and prayer
  • Revival of religious feeling
jonathan edwards
Jonathan Edwards
  • Preacher in Massachusetts who hoped to restore New England’s spirituality
  • Focused on repentance and being “born again”
george whitfield
George Whitfield
  • Arrived in Philadelphia in 1739
  • Powerful, emotional speaker
  • Preached throughout the colonies to large crowds
social mobility
Social Mobility
  • Ability to move from one social status to another
  • Individualism – each person can achieve success with hard work
benjamin franklin
Benjamin Franklin

Oct. 6, 1723 – he arrived in Philadelphia:

“I was in my working dress . . . I was dirty from my journey, and I knew no soul nor where to look for lodging. I was fatigued with traveling, rowing, and want of rest; I was very hungry; and my whole stock of cash consisted of a Dutch dollar and a shilling in copper.”

mercantilism
Mercantilism
  • Country tries to accumulate gold and silver
  • Sell more goods than buy from other countries
  • Exports greater than imports
mercantilism1
Mercantilism
  • Buy raw materials from colonies
  • Sell finished products to the colonies
difficulties for the colonies
Difficulties for the Colonies
  • Cannot sell products to another nation
  • Cannot accumulate gold and silver
  • Cannot manufacture own goods
navigation acts
Navigation Acts
  • England attempted to enforce their mercantilist policies on the colonies
quote boston gazette
Quote, Boston Gazette

“A colonist cannot make a button, a horseshoe, nor a hobnail, but some sooty ironmonger or respectable buttonmaker of Britain shall bawl and squall that his Honor’s worship is . . . maltreated, injured, cheated, and robbed by the rascally American republicans.”