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Chapter 25: The Great Depression and the New Deal, 1929-1939.
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Chapter 25: The Great Depression and the New Deal, 1929-1939 Preview:“The Great Depression, the longest one in the history of the nation, left many Americans shaken. Rates of birth and marriage declined, and many women worked additional hours in and out of the home. Franklin Roosevelt’s New Deal attacked the Depression along three broad fronts: recovery for the economy, relief for the needy, and reforms designed to ward off future depressions. It succeeded in all but the quest for the recovery.” The Highlights: The Human Impact of the Great Depression The Tragedy of Herbert Hoover The Early New Deal (1933-1935) A Second New Deal (1935-1936) The American People under the New Deal The End of the New Deal (1937-1940)
25-2 The Human Impact of the Great Depression • Hard Times • Subsistence incomes • Marriage and family • Fathers and mothers • Psychological impact McGraw-Hill
25-3 • The Golden Age of Radio and Film • Programming: helped change national habits • Legion of Decency (1933) • “Dirty Thirties”: An Ecological Disaster • Dust Bowl • Impact of commercial farming • “Okie” migration to California portrayed in John Steinbeck’s The Grapes of Wrath (1939) McGraw-Hill
25-6 • Mexican Americans and Repatriation • Cesar Chavez • Repatriation • LULAC and ethnic identity • African Americans in the Depression • Father Divine and Elijah Muhammad • Scottsboro boys incident and court case illustrated heightened racial tensions McGraw-Hill
25-7 The Tragedy of Herbert Hoover • The Failure of Relief • Private charity • City services • TERA: Temporary Emergency Relief Administration (1931) “By the winter of 1931-1932 the story was the same everywhere: relief organizations with too little money and too few resources to make much headway against the Depression”(826). McGraw-Hill
25-8 • The Hoover Depression Program • Hoover: government should foster private solutions to public problems • Smoot-Hawley Tariff (1930) • Reconstruction Finance Corporation (1932) • Unemployment relief • Stirrings of Discontent • Farm Holiday Association • Communist party McGraw-Hill
25-9 • The Bonus Army • The bonus army wanted to cash in the bonus certificates they had received from Congress in 1924 • Hoover called U.S. Army to remove protestors-many wounded • The Election of 1932 • Republicans supported Hoover; Democrats nominated Franklin D. Roosevelt • “Roosevelt coalition” was victorious McGraw-Hill
25-10 The Early New Deal (1933-1935) • The Democratic Roosevelts • Franklin Roosevelt • The Brains Trust • Saving the Banks • Emergency Banking Act (1933) • Federal Deposit Insurance (1933) McGraw-Hill
25-11 • Relief for the Unemployed • Work relief • The Civil Works Administration (CWA) • The Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) • Tennessee Valley Authority (1933) • Planning for Industrial Recovery • Public Works Administration (1933) • National Recovery Administration (1933) • Schecter decision (1935) struck down the NRA McGraw-Hill
25-12 “Though Roosevelt regarded recovery as his primary goal, the New Deal never achieved it. Conditions improved, but the economy only limped along”(837). • Planning for Agriculture • Agricultural Adjustment Administration (1933) • Butler v. U.S. (1936) McGraw-Hill
25-14 A Second New Deal (1935-1936) • Voices of Protest • Liberty League (1934) • “End Poverty in California” • Huey Long • Charles Coughlin • Francis Townsend McGraw-Hill
25-15 • The Second Hundred Days • Works Progress Administration (WPA) • Social Security (1935) • National Labor Relations Act (1935) • The Election of 1936 • Roosevelt turned the election into a contest between haves and have-nots • Roosevelt coalition McGraw-Hill
25-16 The American People under the New Deal • The New Deal and Western Water • Water management programs extended federal power • Bureau of Reclamation was a powerful force in Washington and the West • The Limited Reach of the New Deal • African Americans • Mexican Americans McGraw-Hill
25-17 • Tribal Rights • The New Deal renewed federal interest in the plight of the Indians • John Collier’s Indian Reorganization Act • A New Deal for Women • A network of activist formed to promote women’s interests and social reform • Women’s Division of the Democratic National Committee • New Dealers placed greater emphasis on aiding women than on employing them McGraw-Hill
25-18 • The Rise of Organized Labor • CAWIU farm strike (1933) • John L. Lewis headed the United Mine Workers (UMW) • Congress of Industrial Organizations (1936) • Campaigns of the CIO • Sit-down strikes • Union gains McGraw-Hill
“No agency of the New Deal touched more Americans than Federal One, the bureaucratic umbrella of the WPA’s arts program. For the first time, thousands of unemployed writers, musicians, painters, actors, and photographers went on the federal payroll, and millions of Americans saw their work”(850). 25-19 • “Art for the Millions” • New Deal program Federal One employed writers, musicians, painters, actors, and photographers • Rivera and Orozco • Documentary realism: stirred the social conscience of the country McGraw-Hill
25-21 The End of the New Deal (1937-1940) • Packing the Courts • Roosevelt complained that the Supreme Court had created a “no-man’s land” • Roosevelt’s plan • The New Deal at Bay • John Maynard Keynes • Recovery abroad McGraw-Hill
25-22 • The Legacy of the New Deal • Lasted five years from 1993-1938 and left a legacy of change • FDR modernized the presidency • The many New Deal programs formed the outlines of the new welfare state McGraw-Hill