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Stoichiometry. “In solving a problem of this sort, the grand thing is to be able to reason backward. This is a very useful accomplishment, and a very easy one, but people do not practice it much.”. Sherlock Holmes, in Sir Arthur Conan Doyle’s A Study in Scarlet. Review : Chemical Equations.

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stoichiometry
Stoichiometry

“In solving a problem of this sort, the grand thing is to be able to reason backward. This is a very useful accomplishment, and a very easy one, but people do not practice it much.”

Sherlock Holmes, in Sir Arthur Conan Doyle’s A Study in Scarlet

review chemical equations

Review: Chemical Equations

C2H5OH + 3O2® 2CO2 + 3H2O

reactants

products

When the equation is balanced it has quantitative significance:

Chemical change involves a reorganization of

the atoms in one or more substances.

1 mole of ethanol reacts with 3 moles of oxygen to produce 2 moles of carbon dioxide and3 moles of water

calculating masses of reactants and products
Calculating Masses of Reactants and Products
  • Balance the equation.
  • Convert mass or volume to moles, if necessary.
  • Set up mole ratios.
  • Use mole ratios to calculate moles of desired substituent.
  • Convert moles to mass or volume, if necessary.
working a stoichiometry problem
Working a Stoichiometry Problem

6.50 grams of aluminum reacts with an excess of oxygen. How many grams of aluminum oxide are formed.

1. Identify reactants and products and write the balanced equation.

4

Al

+

3

O2

2

Al2O3

a. Every reaction needs a yield sign!

b. What are the reactants?

c. What are the products?

d. What are the balanced coefficients?

working a stoichiometry problem1
Working a Stoichiometry Problem

6.50 grams of aluminum reacts with an excess of oxygen. How many grams of aluminum oxide are formed?

4 Al + 3O2 2Al2O3

6.50 x 2 x 101.96÷ 26.98 ÷ 4 =

12.3 g Al2O3

6.50 g Al

1 mol Al

2 mol Al2O3

101.96 g Al2O3

=

? g Al2O3

4 mol Al

1 mol Al2O3

26.98 g Al

limiting reactant

Limiting Reactant

The limiting reactant is the reactant

that is consumed first, limiting the amounts of products formed.