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IPv6. Miguel Baptista FCCN. Agenda. DNS DHCPv6 Some Services with IPv6 support in FCCN IPv6 Network Management. 1. DNS. DNS. Domain Name System Tranlation services from names(FQDN) to addresses And addresses to names DNS for IPv6 uses the same principles as for IPv4. DNS.

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slide1

IPv6

Miguel Baptista

FCCN

agenda
Agenda
  • DNS
  • DHCPv6
  • Some Services with IPv6 support in FCCN
  • IPv6 Network Management
slide4
DNS
  • Domain Name System
  • Tranlation services from names(FQDN) to addresses
    • And addresses to names
  • DNS for IPv6 uses the same principles as for IPv4
slide5
DNS
  • New resource record type – AAAA
    • Don’t use A6 or DNAME addresses
  • New reverse domain – ip6.arpa
    • Don’t use ip6.int reverse domain
slide6
DNS

Name server to use?

  • My advice, use Bind

And which version?

You should use > 9.X versions (9.2). Avoid older versions

slide7
DNS
  • Example:
    • test.ip6.fccn.pt A 193.136.199.200
    • test.ip6.fccn.pt AAAA 2001:690:866:2000::1

Reverse domain

    • 200.199.136.193.int.arpa
    • 1.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0:0.0.0.2.6.6.8.0.0.9.6.0.1.0.0.2.ip6.arpa
slide8
DNS
  • We may have some “unreachable interface” problems after insert AAAA records
  • Solution: Create an IPv6 domain
  • Example: test.ip6.fccn.pt
slide9
DNS
  • One of IANA’s functions is the DNS top-level delegations
  • Changes in TLDs (e.g ccTLDs) has to be approved and activated by IANA
  • Introduction of IPv6-capable nameservers at ccTLDs level has to be made through IANA
slide10
DNS
  • AAAA glue records
  • How many servers supporting a domain should carry AAAA records
    • Usually conservative approaches
    • One or two servers
  • Don’t use long server names. 1024 bytes limit in DNS responses
    • Some ccTLDs had to renamed their servers (same philosophy used by root servers)
slide11
DNS
  • 17/04/2005
    • 4 TLDs (.AEROS, .NET, .COM, .INT)
    • 42 ccTLDs
  • European: About half already glued
slide12
DNS
  • FCCN:
    • We had to upgrade the DNS servers to dual-stack
    • Then upgrade Bind software
    • Instalation of the F-ROOT server mirror in Lisbon, originally in dual-stack
dhcpv6
DHCPv6
  • Neighbor discovery
    • Based on ICMPv6
    • Router Advertisement
    • Router discovery messages
dhcpv61
DHCPv6
  • Enabling router advertisement
    • Specific to an interface
    • Automatically enabled on ethernet and FDDI

Examples:

router(config-if)# ipv6 address 2001:690:866::1/64

router(config-if)# ipv6 nd prefix 2001:690:866::/64

dhcpv6 one thing to remember
DHCPv6 – One thing to remember
  • Provider Independent - PI
  • Provider Aggregated - PA
  • In IPv6 we only have PA -> Renumbering
    • Some IPv6 mechanisms make renumbering easier (e.g. router advertisement)
dhcpv62
DHCPv6
  • Autoconfiguration types:
    • Staleless (RFC 2462)
      • Router advertisement (RA) messages identify the subnet
      • Host generate its own global addresses using the prefix + EUI-64 identifier (based on MAC address)
      • Default gateway is the router that sends RAs
      • If RA doesn’t carry any prefix, the host doesn’t configure any global IPv6 address
dhcpv63
DHCPv6
  • Stateless main aspects
      • Requires no manual configuration of hosts
      • Minimal configuration of routers
      • No need of addicional DHCP servers
  • Stateless problems
    • Impossible to automatically send DNS server addresses
    • IPv6 addresses depends on networks adapters
dhcpv64
DHCPv6
  • Autoconfiguration types:
    • Stateful (RFC 3315)
      • Based on DHCPv6 servers
      • Hosts get their addresses and other configuration info (DNS, NTP servers) through a DHCPv6 server
      • Server maintain a database of assigned addresses
      • Client uses link local address to connect the server
dhcpv65
DHCPv6
  • The two types of configuration can complement each other
  • Example:
    • we can obtain DNS server address from DHCPv6

In dual-stack we can obtain DNS server addresses from DHCPv4

dhcpv66
DHCPv6
  • DHCPv6 Server/client Implementations
    • Dibbler
      • Linux and Windows support
    • Project DHCPv6
      • Linux support
dhcpv6 example
DHCPv6 - Example
  • Scenario
    • DHCPv6 Server will assign the IPv6 address - 2001:690:866:2::1b/128
    • routeradvertisement without network prefix
dhcpv6 example1
DHCPv6 - Example

# ifconfig eth1

eth1 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:E0:29:06:AA:54

inet6 addr: 2001:690:866:2::1b/128 Scope:Global

# route -A inet6

Kernel IPv6 routing table

destination Next Hop Flags Metric Ref Use Iface

*/0 fe80::205:8500:15a1:801f UGDA 1024 30 0 eth1

# traceroute6 www.kame.net

traceroute www.kame.net (2001:200:0:8002:203:47ff:fea5:3085) 2001:690:866:2:2e0:29ff:fe06:aa54, 30 hops max, 16 byte packets

1 2001:690:866:2::1 (2001:690:866:2::1) 0.584 ms 0.509 ms 0.474 ms

2 fccn.nl6.nl.6net.org (2001:798:22:203::1) 35.196 ms 35.085 ms 35.087 ms

some services with ipv6 support in fccn
Some Services with IPv6 support in FCCN
  • Full operational
    • DNS (Bind)
    • WWW (Apache)
    • FTP (vsftpd)
  • In progress …
    • Instant Messanger (Jabber)
    • Directory Server (OpenLDAP)
    • Nagios
    • VOIP
      • SIP router, Asterisk
    • NTP
ipv6 network management
IPv6 Network Management
  • Network Management
    • Configuration of equipments
    • links
  • Services Management
    • Mail
    • DNS
ipv6 network management1
IPv6 Network Management
  • Basic Management
    • SSH, Telnet via IPv6
    • TFTP/IPV6
    • FTP/IPV6 not supported on Cisco routers
ipv6 network management2
IPv6 Network Management
  • SNMP/MIBs over IPv6
    • Routers from major vendors support SNMP
    • If necessary, in dual-stack we can use IPv4 to retrieve information
    • MIBs are essencial for the network management
ipv6 network management3
IPv6 Network Management
  • IPv6 MIBs
    • At the beginning IPv4 and IPv6 MIBs dissociated
    • Unified MIBs are on standardization track
ipv6 network management4
IPv6 Network Management
  • Cisco
    • Unified MIBS
    • No distinction between IPv4 e IPv6 traffic at the interface level from the MIBS
    • Information available from CLI
      • Show interface accounting
  • Juniper
    • Different counters for IPv4 e IPv6
    • In beginning apply some filters … (permit IPv6 traffic, but count it)
ipv6 network management5
IPv6 Network Management
  • NRENs mainly use GPL or home-made tools
  • Comercial platforms
    • HP-OpenView, Ciscoworks (have or will have IPv6 support )
    • Tivoli Netview,Infovista (no IPv6 support)
ipv6 network management6
IPv6 Network Management
  • 6NET WP6 : Managing large scale IPv6 networks
  • Monitoring tools for IPv6
    • Tested
    • Documented
  • http://tools.6net.org
ipv6 network management7
IPv6 Network Management

LAN

  • Traffic & Service management (Web, DNS...)
    • Argus, Nagios, Ntop
  • End-to-End
    • Iperf or Pchar
  • Configuration Management
    • Rancid
  • Analysys of packets on shared links
    • Ethereal, tcpdump or Ntop
  • IPv6 multicast management
    • Multicast Beacon
ipv6 network management8
IPv6 Network Management

WAN

  • Traffic Management
    • MRTG, Cricket
  • Equipment and link status
    • Intermapper, Nagios
  • Routing management
    • ASpath-tree (routing policy study)
  • Accounting management
    • Ipflow, Cisco NFC v5.0
  • Configuration management
    • Rancid
  • Looking Glasses
    • Cisco Looking glass V6, LG – Looking Glass