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Synthesis of Biodiesel Using Acid, Base, and Enzyme Catalysts. James Krach. Need. http://wpcontent.answers.com/wikipedia/commons/thumb/c/cb/Global_Carbon_Emission_by_Type_to_Y2004.png/250px-Global_Carbon_Emission_by_Type_to_Y2004.png. Sources of Biodiesel Lipids.

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slide2
Need

http://wpcontent.answers.com/wikipedia/commons/thumb/c/cb/Global_Carbon_Emission_by_Type_to_Y2004.png/250px-Global_Carbon_Emission_by_Type_to_Y2004.png

sources of biodiesel lipids
Sources of Biodiesel Lipids

Biodiesel from Microalgae - Chisti 2007

oil yields of various microalgae
Oil Yields of Various Microalgae

Biodiesel from Microalgae - Chisti 2007

transesterification
Transesterification

http://share.psu.ac.th/file/waraporn.ra/transesterification.jpg

base catalysis saponification
Base Catalysis/Saponification

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/3/30/SaponificationGeneral.svg

solid acid catalyzed biodiesel production by simultaneous esterification and transesterification
Solid acid catalyzed biodiesel production by simultaneous esterification and transesterification

Screening of supported TPA for biodiesel production from canola oil. Reaction conditions: reaction temperature 200 °C, molar ratio of oil to alcohol 1 : 6, stirring speed 600 rpm, catalyst loading 3% w/w.

Kulkarni et. Al 2006

enzymatic production of biodiesel from cotton seed oil using t butanol as a solvent
Enzymatic production of biodiesel from cotton seed oil using t-butanol as a solvent

Fig. 1. Effect of t-butanol on oil conversion during the enzymatic methanolysis of cotton seed oil, using a discontinuous system with a 6:1 methanol to oil molar ratio. Reactions were performed at 50 °C with 18 g of oil and 300mg enzyme; vol% of t-butanol in the mixture: 32.5% (□), 26.5% (◊), 19% (○), 11% (∆), 0% (*).

Royon et. Al 2006

slide9

Cultured High Oil Yield Algae

Centrifuged to Remove Water

Used for the Base Catalyst

Used for the Acid Catalyst

Used for the Enzyme Catalyst

Base catalyst will be added as a solid until dissolved

Acid synthesized from hydrated zirconia and 12-TPA

Enzyme added from Novozymes

Methanol, Algae samples, and catalyst for each group are put into a beaker for the reaction to occur

Reaction will take place on a hot plate at 60ºC for 10 hours

Reaction will take place in an oven at 60ºC for 10 hours

Reaction will take place at 60ºC on a hot plate for 10 hours

Amount of biodiesel produced will be measured and the amount of energy it produces will be collected through combustion

Synthesis of Biodiesel Using Acid, Base, and Enzyme Catalysts

do ability
Do-Ability
  • Enzyme from Novozymes
  • Sodium Hydroxide
  • 12-TPA and Hydrated Zirconia
  • Centrifuge for algae extraction
  • Algae cultures
  • Hot Plate
  • Oven
hypotheses
Hypotheses
  • 1(a) Biodiesel produced by the base will be significantly more effective than the other catalysts
  • 2(a) Biodiesel produced by the acid will be significantly more effective than the other catalysts
  • 3(a) Biodiesel produced by the enzyme will be significantly more effective than the other catalysts
purpose
Purpose
  • The purpose of this experiment is to determine the effectiveness of acid, base, and enzyme catalysts when the oil is produced from the same algal culture
works cited
Works Cited

"Biofuel Development Shifting From Soil to Sea, Specifically to Marine Algae." ScienceDaily 4 Jan. 2009. <http://www.sciencedaily.com/2008/12/081220084424.htm>.

Chisti, Yusuf. "Biodiesel from Microalgae." Elsevier 25 (2007): 294-306. ScienceDirect. 13 Feb. 2007. <www.sciencedirect.com>.

Cox, Peter, Richard Betts, Chris Jones, Steven Spall, and Ian Totterdell. "Acceleration of global warming due to carbon-cycle feedbacks in a coupled climate model." Nature 408 (2000): 184-87. 9 Nov. 2000.

Fan, S., M. Gloor, J. Mahlman, S. Pacala, J. Sarmiento, T. Takahashi, and T. Tans. "A Large Terrestrial Carbon Sink in North America Implied by Atmospheric and Oceanic Carbon Dioxide Data and Models." ScienceMag 5355th ser. 282 (1998): 442-46. 16 Oct. 1998. Princeton University.

"First Economical Process for Making Biodiesel Fuel from Algae." ScienceDaily 31 Mar. 2009. <http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/03/090325222006.htm>.

Hossain, Sharif, Aishah Salleh, Amru N. Boyce, Partha Chowdhury, and Mohd Naqiuddin. "Biodiesel Fuel Production from Algae as Renewable Energy." American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology 4 (2008): 250-54. University of Malaya.

Hu, Qiang, Milton Sommerfeld, Eric Jarvis, Maria Ghirardi, Matthew Posewitz, Michael Seibert, and Al Darzins. "Microalgal triacylglycerols as feedstocks for biofuel production: perspectives and advances." The Plant Journal 54 (2008): 621-39. 20 Feb. 2008. Arizona State University.

Kulkarni, Mangesh, Rajesh Gopinath, Lekha Meher, and Ajay Dalai. "Solid acid catalyzed biodiesel production by simultaneous esterification and transesterification." Green Chemistry 8 (2006): 1056-062. 15 Sept. 2006.

Lotero, Edgar, Yijun Liu, Dora Lopez, Kaewta Suwannakarn, David Bruce, and James Goodwin Jr. "Synthesis of Biodiesel via Acid Catalysis." American Chemical Society (2004). 6 Nov. 2004. Department of Chemical Engineering, Clemenson University.

Markovic, Jelena P., and Slobodan K. Milonjic. "Synthesis of zirconia colloidal dispersions by forced hydrolysis." Journal of the Serbian Chemical Society 71 (2006): 613-19. 28 July 2006.

"Promising Biofuel Made From Commercial Yeasts Upgraded With a New Enzyme." ScienceDaily 9 Mar. 2009. <http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/02/090224230751.htm>.

Royon, D., M. Daz, G. Ellenrieder, and S. Locatelli. "Enzymatic production of biodiesel from cotton seed oil using t-butanol as a solvent." Elsiver 98 (2007): 648-53. 21 Apr. 2007. National University of Salta, Buenos Aires.

Schenk, Peer, Skye Thomas-Hall, Evan Stephens, Ute Marx, Jan Mussgnug, Clemens Posten, Olaf Kruse, and Ben Hankamer. "Second Generation Biofuels: High-Efficiency Microalgae for Bioodiesel Production." Bioenergy Research (2008): 20-43. Springer. 4 Mar. 2008.

"Two-step Chemical Process Turns Raw Biomass Into Biofuel." ScienceDaily 20 Feb. 2009. <http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/02/090210182439.htm>.

"Using Malgae to Convert Sunlight Into Biofuel." ScienceDaily 9 Oct. 2008. <http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/10/081008203549>.

Vasedevan, Palligarnai, and Michael Briggs. "Biodiesel production -- current and state of the art and challenges." Industrial Micrbiology and Biotechnology (2008): 123-36. 3 Jan. 2008. University of New Hampshire.