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  1. Ch. 12 Science & Secularity: The Modern Era Begins Early Modern Science Galileo Galilei 1564-1642

  2. Ch. 12 Science & Secularity: The Modern Era Begins Early Modern Science Did away with question of the purpose of events. Galileo Galilei 1564-1642

  3. Ch. 12 Science & Secularity: The Modern Era Begins Early Modern Science Did away with question of the purpose of events. Settled for knowing the reliably regular patterns – “laws of nature” mathematically measurable matter in motion. Galileo Galilei 1564-1642

  4. Ch. 12 Science & Secularity: The Modern Era Begins Early Modern Science Most scientists were religious, but . . . . Galileo Galilei 1564-1642

  5. Ch. 12 Science & Secularity: The Modern Era Begins Early Modern Science Most scientists were religious, but . . . . E.g., Laplace (1749-1827) “Sire, I have no need of that hypothesis.” [God] Galileo Galilei 1564-1642

  6. Ch. 12 Science & Secularity: The Modern Era Begins • Early Modern Science • Deism • a natural theology--“argument from design” • awe at the intelligible order of nature Galileo Galilei 1564-1642

  7. Ch. 12 Science & Secularity: The Modern Era Begins • Early Modern Science • Deism • a natural theology--“argument from design” • awe at the intelligible order of nature • cannot possibly be by mere accident Galileo Galilei 1564-1642

  8. Ch. 12 Science & Secularity: The Modern Era Begins • Early Modern Science • Deism • a natural theology--“argument from design” • awe at the intelligible order of nature • cannot possibly be by • mere accident • therefore it must have • been designed Galileo Galilei 1564-1642 William Blake, 1794 “Ancient of Days”

  9. Ch. 12 Science & Secularity: The Modern Era Begins Early Modern Science Deism “argument from design” Skeptical about miracles E.G. -- Boyle: God not a “puppetmaster” “original contrivance” is enough (and the “divine concursus”) Robert Boyle 1627-1691 Strasbourg clock

  10. Ch. 12 Science & Secularity: The Modern Era Begins Early Modern Science Deism -- 4 supports for it 1. Naturalism: The assumption that all events are due to fully natural causes Robert Boyle 1627-1691

  11. Ch. 12 Science & Secularity: The Modern Era Begins Early Modern Science Deism -- 4 supports for it 1. Naturalism: 3 forms - metaphysical = no God at all Robert Boyle 1627-1691

  12. Ch. 12 Science & Secularity: The Modern Era Begins Early Modern Science Deism -- 4 supports for it 1. Naturalism: 3 forms - metaphysical = no God at all - cosmological = no interventions Robert Boyle 1627-1691

  13. Ch. 12 Science & Secularity: The Modern Era Begins Early Modern Science Deism -- 4 supports for it 1. Naturalism: 3 forms - metaphysical = no God at all - cosmological = no interventions - methodological = “as if” science is limited to finding natural causes. Robert Boyle 1627-1691

  14. Ch. 12 Science & Secularity: The Modern Era Begins Early Modern Science Deism -- 4 supports for it 1. Naturalism: 3 forms - methodological = “as if” science is limited to finding natural causes. Discuss: Why can’t scientists say miracles may cause some events? Robert Boyle 1627-1691

  15. Ch. 12 Science & Secularity: The Modern Era Begins Early Modern Science Deism -- 4 supports for it 1. Naturalism: 3 forms - methodological = “as if” (got deists used to thinking that no supernatural acts occur) Robert Boyle 1627-1691 E.g. Jefferson’s bible END 3/29

  16. Ch. 12 Science & Secularity: The Modern Era Begins Early Modern Science Deism -- 4 supports for it 1. Naturalism: 3 forms 2. Religious Humanism God made an intelligible world. God gave humans intelligence. So humans should rely on themselves, for progress.

  17. Ch. 12 Science & Secularity: The Modern Era Begins Georg Gisze, merchant Oil on wood By Hans Holbein, 1532. Notable about this: the figure is not a saint, nor a character in a Bible story. He is “secular” – a sign of humanism, treating humans as truly important.

  18. Ch. 12 Science & Secularity: The Modern Era Begins Early Modern Science Deism -- 4 supports for it 1. Naturalism: 3 forms 2. Religious Humanism 3. For Religious Tolerance What if there is only one religion, based on reason? Lord Herbert of Cherbury 1583-1648

  19. Ch. 12 Science & Secularity: The Modern Era Begins Early Modern Science Religious Tolerance Holy Inquisition Lord Herbert of Cherbury 1583-1648

  20. Ch. 12 Science & Secularity: The Modern Era Begins Early Modern Science Religious Tolerance Holy Inquisition 70 K Huguenots killed -- 1572 includesSt. Bartholomew’s day massacre Lord Herbert of Cherbury 1583-1648

  21. Ch. 12 Science & Secularity: The Modern Era Begins Early Modern Science Religious Tolerance Holy Inquisition 70 K Huguenots killed -- 1572 includesSt. Bartholomew’s day massacre 30 years’ war up to 2/3 died in major parts of Germany Lord Herbert of Cherbury 1583-1648

  22. Ch. 12 Science & Secularity: The Modern Era Begins Early Modern Science Religious Tolerance Herbert wrote: De Veritate arguing that reason, not faith or authority or sacred texts, should guide people -- Deism Lord Herbert of Cherbury 1583-1648

  23. Ch. 12 Science & Secularity: The Modern Era Begins Early Modern Science Deism -- 4 supports for it 1. Naturalism: 3 forms 2. Religious Humanism 3. For Religious Tolerance 4. Argument from Design Supppose you found a watch upon the heath. Could its structure be due to accident? William. Paley 1743-1805

  24. Ch. 12 Science & Secularity: The Modern Era Begins Early Modern Science Evolution and Agnosticism Charles Darwin 1809 - 1882 A 1840 portrait by Geo.Richmond

  25. Ch. 12 Science & Secularity: The Modern Era Begins Early Modern Science Evolution and Agnosticism On the Origin of Species By Means of Natural Selection Or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life -- 1859 Charles Darwin 1809 - 1882 A 1840 portrait by Geo.Richmond

  26. Ch. 12 Science & Secularity: The Modern Era Begins Early Modern Science Evolution and Agnosticism Pre-Darwin Theories of Change Chas Darwin 1809 - 1882 Kant ca. 1757. Laplace ca 1797.]

  27. Ch. 12 Science & Secularity: The Modern Era Begins Early Modern Science Evolution and Agnosticism Pre-Darwin Theories of Change Chas Darwin 1809 - 1882 James Hutton Theory of the Earth 1795 The discovery of “deep time.”

  28. Ch. 12 Science & Secularity: The Modern Era Begins Early Modern Science Evolution and Agnosticism Pre-Darwin Theories of Change -- Chas Darwin 1809 - 1882 Auguste Comte, 1798-1857“Positivism” Systeme de Politique Positive 3 stages of culture: --theological (superstition) --philosophical (speculation) --“positive” science (real knowledge)

  29. Ch. 12 Science & Secularity: The Modern Era Begins Early Modern Science Evolution and Agnosticism PreDarwin Theories of Change Chas Darwin 1809 - 1882 Herbert Spencer, 1820-1903. Coined the expression: “survival of the fittest.” Later called a “Social Darwinist” [a phrase to be explained later].

  30. Ch. 12 Science & Secularity: The Modern Era Begins Early Modern Science Evolution and Agnosticism Pre-Darwin Theories of Change Chas Darwin 1809 - 1882 Society has been evolving From primitive foraging to agriculture, to commerce to current industrialization 1818-1883

  31. Ch. 12 Science & Secularity: The Modern Era Begins Early Modern Science Evolution and Agnosticism Theories of Biological Evolution: Erasmus Darwin, Charlie’s gramps 1794-96: Zoonomia Lamark: theory of acquired characteristics.

  32. Ch. 12 Science & Secularity: The Modern Era Begins Early Modern Science Evolution and Agnosticism Darwin’s Theory an account of HOW evolution couldoccur

  33. Ch. 12 Science & Secularity: The Modern Era Begins Early Modern Science Evolution and Agnosticism Darwin’s Theory 1. Superfecundity

  34. Ch. 12 Science & Secularity: The Modern Era Begins Early Modern Science Evolution and Agnosticism Darwin’s Theory 1. Superfecundity

  35. Ch. 12 Science & Secularity: The Modern Era Begins Early Modern Science Evolution and Agnosticism Darwin’s Theory 1. Superfecundity

  36. Ch. 12 Science & Secularity: The Modern Era Begins Early Modern Science Evolution and Agnosticism Darwin’s Theory 1. Superfecundity

  37. Ch. 12 Science & Secularity: The Modern Era Begins Early Modern Science Evolution and Agnosticism Darwin’s Theory 1. Superfecundity 2. Variation among offspring

  38. Ch. 12 Science & Secularity: The Modern Era Begins • Early Modern Science • Evolution and Agnosticism • Darwin’s Theory • 1. Superfecundity • 2. Variation among offspring • 3. Natural selection – survival more likely • for those which happen to be “adapted.”

  39. Ch. 12 Science & Secularity: The Modern Era Begins Early Modern Science Evolution and Agnosticism Darwin’s Theory Natural Selection replaces Paley’s argument from design. this replaces this

  40. Ch. 12 Science & Secularity: The Modern Era Begins Early Modern Science Evolution and Agnosticism Chas Darwin 1809 - 1882 • Implications of Darwin’s theory • Bible in error? • Unplanned process? • Brutal Process? • Humans just animals? • Materialism/naturalism as basic truth?

  41. Ch. 12 Science & Secularity: The Modern Era Begins Early Modern Science Evolution and Agnosticism Darwin’s Theory Chas Darwin 1809 - 1882 Implications of Darwin’s theory in 19th cent.

  42. Ch. 12 WIPEOUTS!!! 65 mya – 15% of 650 families 245 mya – 50% of 400 families, ca. 85% of all species Plus 3 other major ones, Plus dozens of minor ones

  43. Ch. 12 A ragged process. Difficult to see any purposeful pattern

  44. Ch. 12 Evidence: Homologous Structures

  45. Ch. 12 Evidence: Homologous Structures Fish embryo Chicken embryo Pig embryo Human embryo

  46. Ch. 12 Evidence: Homologous Structures Similar DNA: degrees of difference seem to reflect degrees of evolutionary divergence over time.

  47. Ch. 12

  48. Ch. 12

  49. Ch. 12 Hominid family tree. [mtDNA says Neandertals* are not ancestral to humans *Neanderthals]

  50. Ch. 12 Science & Secularity: The Modern Era Begins Early Modern Science Evolution and Agnosticism Darwin’s Theory Chas Darwin 1809 - 1882 • Implications of Darwin’s theory in 19th cent. • Bible in error? • Unplanned process? • Brutal Process? • Humans just animals? • Materialism/naturalism as basic truth?