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§2.1 水准测量的原理

§2.2 水准仪的构造及使用

§2.3 水准测量的实施

§2.4 水准仪的检验和校正

§2.5 水准测量的误差

§2.4 水准仪的检验和校正

1、圆水准轴平行于竖轴（L′L′∥VV）

2、水准管轴平行于视准轴（LL ∥ CC）

3、十字丝横丝应垂直于竖轴

B

A

hAB

DA

DB

3m

a2

b2

i

a1

b1

x1

x2

i

i

§2.5 水准测量的误差

1、仪器误差

2、观测误差

3、外界条件的影响

A

hAB

DA

DB

1、视准轴误差（i角误差）

a1

b1

x1

x2

i

i

2、望远镜对光误差

——物镜在调焦时不沿着主光轴运动

3、尺子的零点误差

1、水准器气泡没有调居中

2、估读水准尺误差

3、尺子倾斜误差

2、大气折光的影响

1、地球曲率的影响

b

a

b

a

a1

a1

b1

b1

D2

D2

D1

D1