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Chapter 20 Chemical Texture Services PowerPoint Presentation
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Chapter 20 Chemical Texture Services

Chapter 20 Chemical Texture Services

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Chapter 20 Chemical Texture Services

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  1. Chapter 20 Chemical Texture Services A blast from the past


  3. Chemical texture services gives the ability to permanently change the hair’s natural wave pattern *offers variety of styling options ~used to curl straight hair ~straighten overly curly hair ~soften coarse, straight hair


  5. Add: • First perm recorded 4000 b.c. • First recorded perm given: • Wrapped over crudely made wooden rollers • Mixture of soil and water • Baked in sun • All day

  6. Texture services include: *Permanent waving *Relaxing *Curl Reforming (soft curl permanents) The Structure of Hair * involves chemically and physically changing the structure of hair

  7. The Cuticle *tough exterior layer *protects the hair from damage *chemicals must penetrate cuticle -into cortex

  8. The Cortex *middle layer of the hair *responsible for strength and elasticity *breaking side bonds -changes the natural wave

  9. Shows how prescription and recreational drugs get trapped in the cortex. Even an aspirin can affect the outcome of PW Blood supply

  10. The Medulla *innermost layer -called pith or core *does not play a role in texture services

  11. Importance of pH in Texture Services *potential hydrogen *measures acidity and alkalinity *range from 0-14 7 is neutral below 7 is acidic Above 7 is alkaline

  12. Chemical texturizers: • *raise the pH to soften and swell the hair • lifts the cuticle • allows solution to reach the cortex • *coarse, resistant hair requires a highly alkaline chemical solution

  13. *porous, damaged, or chemically treated hair requires a less alkaline solution

  14. Basic Building Blocks of Hair Amino acids: *compound of carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, and nitrogen Add: 18 amino acids

  15. Peptide bonds (end bonds) *link amino acids together *form polypeptide chain Polypeptide chains *long chains of amino acids

  16. Keratin proteins • *long coiled polypeptide chains • Side bonds • *disulfide, salt, and hydrogen bonds

  17. Keratin protein • *long chains of amino acids linked together end to end • Chemical bonds linking amino acids together • *peptide bonds • *end bonds • Chains of amino acids are called • polypeptides

  18. Side Bonds • Cortex is made up of millions of polypeptide chains • *elasticity and strength • ~Disulfide bonds • ~Salt bonds • ~Hydrogen bonds

  19. Altering these side bonds makes: • ~wet setting • ~thermal styling • ~permanent waving • ~soft curl permanents • ~chemical hair relaxing possible

  20. Disulfide Bonds *strong chemical side bond *only broken by chemicals -not heat or water *chemical and physical changes -make PW, curl re-forming, and relaxing possible

  21. *strongest of three *accounts for one-third of hair’s overall strength

  22. Add: Disulfide bonds add strength to the keratin protein Disulfide bonds must be broken down during the perming process

  23. Salt Bonds *weak physical side bonds *easily broken by changes in pH *re-form when the pH returns to normal *accounts for one-third of hair’s overall strength

  24. Hydrogen Bonds *weak side bonds *easily broken by water or heat wet setting/thermal styling *re-form as hair dries or cools *accounts for one-third of hair’s overall strength

  25. FYI: Wet set-physical change *breaking bonds *wetting hair/rolling on rollers *re-forms when hair is dry

  26. Not in Book: Do not add, just listen The Client Consultation *most important part *first: -determine exactly what the client expects -what is possible *nothing will compensate for a lack of communication

  27. Ask open-ended questions • -find out what results are expected • What type of coloring product is used • -metallic salts/not on permed hair

  28. Look at pictures • -desired style • Previous texture services • -likes • -dislikes • Currently styles his/her hair • -discuss any changes resulting from the texture service

  29. Determine finished hairstyle • -haircut • -degree of curl or relaxing • Evaluate • -condition • -texture • -wave pattern • Fill out record card

  30. Results of spiral conventional perm with white rods

  31. Permanent Waving *two step process 1. Physical change -wrapping 2. Chemical change -PW solution -neutralizer

  32. The Perm Wrap • Wet set versus PW • -difference: PW breaks the disulfide bonds • Size, shape, and type of curl = • size, shape, and type of rod • End of story!!!!!

  33. The correct perm rod and wrapping method=successful PW • ***selection of solution • ***What you wrap is what you get • Q. Without a perm tool, can I achieve a curl in the hair if the PW solution is applied to just the natural hair? Hair wrapped on a tongue depressor Q. What curl pattern can we expect to achieve ?

  34. Types of Rods • Concave rods • smaller diameter in the center • larger diameter on the ends • tighter curl in center • (I feel these follow the shape of the head better)

  35. Straight rods *equal entire length *uniform curl *short rods -small awkward sections

  36. Add: • Selection of rod size • Amount of curl desired • Physical characteristics of the hair • -length • -texture • -elasticity

  37. Other Perm Tools • Soft bender rods • *12” long • *uniform diameter • *bent into almost any shape


  39. Loop rod or Circle rod *12” long *uniform curl ***spiral ***extremely long hair

  40. Today: • Many perms are performed with • Large rollers • Rag rollers • Other tools to achieve large, loose curls • *large tools for root perms • *create lift and volume without curls

  41. Add: • Pre-perm analysis determines: • Is the hair in good condition • 2. Which perm product should be used • 3. Which perm wrapping technique and rod/parting sizes to use

  42. End Papers * end wraps *absorbent papers used to control the ends of the hair (protects) *extends beyond ends of hair -fishhooks (demo) *ends smooth and straight (covered) -fried ends

  43. Techniques: Double flat wrap *use while in school *most control over ends *evenly distributed Single flat wrap *does not protect ends *use only as a third paper Demo each

  44. Bookend wrap -one paper folded over -use with short rods/short lengths -avoid bunching ends -keep hair in center

  45. Sectioning a Perm *sectioning into panels -size, shape, and direction vary *then, divide into subsections/base sections *length and width of the rod being used Read “Here’s a Tip”

  46. *** Break the rule -11 perm rod PW Lasts about 2 months

  47. Base Placement • Position of rod to its base • On base • -45 degrees angle beyond perpendicular • -greater volume • -my preference • -can mark or break the hair…use picks

  48. Half off base- -90 degree angle -minimizes tension ***minimizes crispness of curl Off base -45 degrees below center (perpendicular) -least volume (scalp area-no curl)

  49. Base Direction *horizontally, vertically, or diagonally *backward, forward, or to one side *wrapping with the natural direction of hair growth causes less stress/less breakage -against hair growth “band” or breakage

  50. FYI: Not on Test • Direction of Hair Growth • Streams, whorls, and cowlicks • base direction • wrapping pattern • ***wrapping the hair in the opposite direction will help client manage an area better for about 2 months