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Distributed Microsystems Laboratory: Developing Microsystems that Make Sense. Goals: To perform true systems integration for existing or incrementally advanced sensor technologies in such a way as to meet system-level constraints related to: power consumption

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distributed microsystems laboratory developing microsystems that make sense
Distributed Microsystems Laboratory:Developing Microsystems that Make Sense
  • Goals: To perform true systems integration for existing or incrementally advanced sensor technologies in such a way as to meet system-level constraints related to:
    • power consumption
    • robustness in real-world environments
    • auto-calibration capability
    • small size, portable deployment
    • self-diagnostic capability
    • multi-stimulus detection
    • sensitivity limits
    • without sacrificing stimulus recognition capability
distributed microsystems laboratory developing microsystems that make sense1
Distributed Microsystems Laboratory:Developing Microsystems that Make Sense
  • Areas of Research in Microsystems Development
  • Chemical Sensing Microsystems
    • Modeling of front-end olfaction in sensor array design and architecture to enhance system robustness, resilience to broken sensors, auto-calibration capability, and sensitivity floor (detection limit).
    • Streamlining of signal processing to adapt chemical discrimination algorithms to lower-overhead equivalents for implementation in portable systems
    • Sensor platform development for extraction of multiple features from a single micro-sensor in an array (including instrument development)
    • Miniaturization of existing larger chemical sensors and systems
    • Optimization of signal conditioning and readout circuits to reduce superfluous information and enhance signal-to-noise ratios
distributed microsystems laboratory developing microsystems that make sense2
Distributed Microsystems Laboratory:Developing Microsystems that Make Sense
  • Areas of Research in Microsystems Development
  • Chemical Sensing Microsystems: Available Sensor Technologies
    • ChemFETs:
      • streamlined signal processing,
      • sensor platform development,
      • miniaturization of systems,
      • optimization of signal conditioning.
    • Composite Polymer Sensors:
      • olfactory modeling,
      • streamlined signal processing,
      • sensor platform development,
      • miniaturization
    • Metal-oxide Sensors:
      • olfactory modeling,
      • sensor platform development
    • SPR (surface plasmon resonance):
      • streamlined signal processing;
      • miniaturization of systems
distributed microsystems laboratory developing microsystems that make sense3
Distributed Microsystems Laboratory:Developing Microsystems that Make Sense
  • Areas of Research in Microsystems Development
  • Other Microsystems
    • Development of application specific integrated CMOS imagers and auditory systems modeled after biology
    • Development of imaging and auditory microsystems for streamlined, low-power implementation
    • Development of integrated pressure sensors for characterizing and controlling biopsy sample preparation
    • Development of integrated platforms for evaluating fluorescence of living, dead, and lysed cells
    • Radio Frequency Identification systems for monitoring health of trees to increase their market value (and thereby decrease the number of trees that need to be cut down).
distributed microsystems laboratory developing microsystems that make sense4
Distributed Microsystems Laboratory:Developing Microsystems that Make Sense
  • What Drives Research in this Laboratory? (e.g. the Vision)
      • LINK TO INDUSTRY: THE APPLICATIONS
        • Environment
          • Environmental monitoring and remediation (groundwater and airborne pollutants)
        • Protecting health and welfare of human beings
          • Chemical and Biological Warfare Sensor Systems useful for widespread distributed implementation
          • Improved Sensor Systems for Biomedical Research
      • ENGINEERING PERSPECTIVE: SYSTEMS INTEGRATION
        • MAUV
      • SCIENCE PERSPECTIVE: MODELLING OF BIOLOGY
        • Olfactory, Auditory, and Vision Modelling
distributed microsystems laboratory developing microsystems that make sense5
Distributed Microsystems Laboratory:Developing Microsystems that Make Sense
  • What Drives Research in this Laboratory? (e.g. the Vision)
      • PERSONAL PERSPECTIVE AND CONVICTIONS
        • Teaching
          • “Classes”: critical thinking are weighted as heavily as topical skills
          • “Laboratory”: teamwork, maturity and responsibility, long-term potential and vision of students should be developed with as much seriousness as the topical experience. Don’t clone graduate students!
          • Use (constructive) criticism and high expectations as a tool to driving students toward reaching their potential.
        • Research:
          • No weapons of mass destruction ever
          • Keep “making the world a better place” at the top of the priority list
        • Service:
          • Be kind, give easily, don’t get overextended.
spr surface plasmon resonance chemical sensing microsystems

Polychromatic Light

Chemically sensitive coating

Gold Interface layer

Waveguide

Dielectric Color Filter

Photodiode

Inlet Port

Outlet Port

Silicon Substrate

Collaboration with Karl Booksh, Department of Chemistry, Arizona State University

SPR (Surface Plasmon Resonance) Chemical Sensing Microsystems
spr surface plasmon resonance chemical sensing microsystems1

Chemically sensitive coating

Waveguide

Gold Interface layer

Analog Photodiode Outputs

time

Digital Alarm Outputs

SPR (Surface Plasmon Resonance) Chemical Sensing Microsystems
chemical sensing micro systems modeled after front end olfaction

Metal-oxide or Conducting Polymer

Vapor Sample

Aggregation Signal Conditioning Signal Screening

Heater Control

A/D Conversion (as needed)

Incoming Airflow

Pre-concentrator

Compare

Heater Chemically Sensitive Coating

Incoming Airflow

Vapor Sample

Microcontroller: Streamlined Pattern Recognition (low-power)

Chemical Sensing MicroSystems: Modeled after Front-End Olfaction
chemical sensing systems what does front end olfaction tell us
Chemical Sensing Systems: What does front-end olfaction tell us?
  • Fact: Olfactory Mucous pre-concentration ignores odors beyond a saturation level and below a threshold level
  • Engineering Implication: concentration detection and odor discrimination should be performed independent of one other

Source: Kendall and Schwartz; Principles of Neural Science

scale invariant a d conversion applied to a cmos imager

...

Photodiode/transistor

...

Global Communication

(for automatic gain control),

Control/Readout Lines

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

...

Scale-Invariant A/D Conversion applied to a CMOS Imager
  • System Architecture

Focal Plane Processing,

Integrating/Reset Circuits

Pixel Selection,

Digital Readout Circuits,

Readout Amplifiers

scale invariant a d conversion applied to a cmos imager1

Original Image

25/75 high/low

2-bit converted image

Scale-Invariant A/D Conversion applied to a CMOS Imager
  • Ratio-based A/D Conversion: Example

50/50 high/low

75/25 high/low

chemical sensing micro systems scaling down larger systems

Scale: centimeter-size Capteur sensors to micron-size sensors

  • Additional capability: two electrode widths determine whether analyte penetrates into the bulk or remains on the surface of the sensor; provides additional information with which to discriminate analytes
  • Performance Improvements: lower power, faster response time for both sensors and sensor heaters
Chemical Sensing Microsystems: Scaling Down Larger Systems
chemical sensing micro systems overcoming cmos compatibility issues

Problem: surface non-uniformity causes non-uniform chemical sensing film deposition

  • Solution: use vertical sidewalls as sensor surface coatings
  • Problem: conventional silicon direction-selective etching attacks bonding pads and other exposed aluminum
  • Solution: use different sensor platform architectures that enable dry, isotropic etch
Chemical Sensing Microsystems: Overcoming CMOS Compatibility Issues