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Creative Economy in a Mixed Society: Approaches to Measuring its Potential. Inga Tomić-Koludrović & Mirko Petrić Department of Sociology University of Zadar. Cultural transitions

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Creative Economy in a Mixed Society: Approaches to

Measuring its Potential

Inga Tomić-Koludrović

& Mirko Petrić

Department of Sociology

University of Zadar

Cultural transitions

An international conference on policy, industry and aesthetics Interuniversity Centre Dubrovnik

Dubrovnik, 10. 5. 2006

cultural  creative------------------------------------------------- cultural industry- cultural industries- creative industries- creative economy

Creative Industriesdefinition-----------------------------------------------------------”The Creative Industries are those that have their origin in individualcreativity, skill, and talent and that have a potential for wealth and job creation through the generation and exploitation of intellectual property.”The Creative Industries Mapping DocumentDepartment for Culture, Media and Sport,UK, 1998

Creative Industries : culture-----------------------------------------------------------”Government and the Value of Culture” Tessa Jowell (2004)- a role for subsidized culturehigh art- recognized but described in terms of investment- potential of an individual

Creative Economy------------------------------------------------------------ disappearance of “culture” ?“creative” + “economy”- the term = more straigthforward /obscures less/BUT“CULTURE MATTERS” Harrison / Huntington (2000)

Mapping Index of Creativity-----------------------------------------------------------------------DCMS Mapping of Creative Industries(1997, 2000)- exclusively “industrial” aspect- economic contribution-------------------------------------------------------------------- “audit of cultural resources” = different

Mapping Index of Creativity-----------------------------------------------------------------------Florida’s indices of creativity% workforce in the creative classpresence of advanced technologyinnovationdiversity (gay index)

Percent of workforce in the creative class

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Percent of workforce in the creative class

3Ts --------------------------------------------------------------- values---------------------------------------------------------------“3Ts of economic growth”TalentTechnologyTolerancethe original indices

World Index of Creativity---------------------------------------------------------------outline (2005)---------------------------------------------------------------based on empirical research of valuesWorld Values Survey/Inglehart/Croatia, Bulgaria, Romania = included

Mapping ---------------------------------------------------------------Index of Creativity---------------------------------------------------------------Hong Kong : Mappingmost comprehensive : economic Hong Kong : Index of creativityDesmond Huisocial + cultural capital

SEE - Index of Creativity?-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------how to measure the potential ofthe creative economy in the region?/ Florida’s nascent World Index of Creativity =/= specific enough /

SEE - Index of Creativity?------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- the task = creation of more specific,more sensitive indices- the question: is the region a good focusfor such exercises?- the question : are individual nation-statesin the region a good focus for such exercises?

Index of Creativity------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- the need for diversified levels of reference - the focus =/= territory of a nation-state - the focus =/= the “region” in Florida’s sense/”city + surrounding areas”/

Index of Creativity------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------the focus = city, region/including historical traditions & a sense of place/ diversified national orSEE-levelindices

Index of Creativity------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------the focus = micro-histories, traditions, culturesthe purpose = interpret in order to understand /Bauman/“case by case” “step by step”

Index of Creativity------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- the focus /locus/ = the sense of place/what it is about/- methods to measure it = should be devised- but what exactly is measured? - “what is creativity?”

Creativity------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- an evasive term- one attempt:“the ability to think at the edge of yourcompetence”Charles Landry

Creativity------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- but what are “competences”? - how are they acquired?- how are they recognized?------------------------------------------------SOCIAL locus of reference

Creativity------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- but also CULTURE plays a part - VALUES : socialization/learning of culture/- by means of socialization onemasters the culture of one’s society------------------------------------------------values = a good start/but not enough: too generalized/

Focus------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ - not only “market” / “economy” indicators(Porter: 17.000 $ +)but“society” + “culture”

Society how to describe it what to study about it

Society------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ - how to describe it?- what to study about it?

“transition”--------------------------------------------------------------- “mixed” society---------------------------------------------------“transition”- political /single-party multiparty/- economic /state or “social ownership”  market economy/- social / cultural /e.g. from active suppressionof religion to its dominance in the social life/

why “mixed” society?------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------“transition” in SEE = an unfinished processEU accession = marks the end/in political terms/EU candidate countries : nearing“mature transition” but in social terms?

“mixed” society------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------“transition” processes- varied from country to country - in common : (recent) radical break with the past& influence of the globalization processin the present

“mixed” society------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------“transitional societies” = now stabilizing- old mechanisms destroyed but new have formed - these societies exihibit characteristics of both traditional and modern social structures - can therefore be described as mixed societies

“mixed” society------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- different outcomes/also within one nation/ - should be studied “step by step, case by case” - in the case of Croatia: two modernizationprocesses simultaneously at work/Tomić-Koludrović/

“mixed” society------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ “first” or “simple”, “industrial” modernization/premodern  modern/ second or “reflexive”, “postindustrial” modernization /”modernization of modernization”/U. Beck

Split riva

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Split Riva

Splitska riva

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Splitska riva

Splitska riva1

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Splitska riva

Splitska riva2

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Splitska riva

Mixed society by analogy with mixed economy mixed agriculture

“mixed” society--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------by analogy withmixed economymixed agriculture

transitional society---------------------------------------------------------------process : from → to----------------------------------------------mixed society= outcome : what we start from in analysismixed society =/= staticvarious processes take place but constellations = established

mixed society-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- should be studiedin order to understand it & be ableto interpret it/such studies in themselves emphasize or develop its reflexive character /

mixed society-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- methods should be devisedto study its social & cultural aspects“market” = too narrow a descriptor and insufficient in general as focus of development“people” = the most valuable resource/this = also an “investment” in them and in society/