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Electromagnetic Actuator-Solinoid. Noah A. Sundberg ECE 5320 Mechatronics Assignment #1. Outline. Resources Related Web Pages Introduction Major applications Specific applications and uses How it works Principles Behind Solenoids Example 1 Specifications Selecting a Solenoid

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electromagnetic actuator solinoid

Electromagnetic Actuator-Solinoid

Noah A. Sundberg

ECE 5320 Mechatronics

Assignment #1

  • Resources
  • Related Web Pages
  • Introduction
  • Major applications
  • Specific applications and uses
  • How it works
    • Principles Behind Solenoids
    • Example 1
  • Specifications
  • Selecting a Solenoid
  • Limitations
  • Mechatronics Handbook, Robert H. Bishop, CRS Press
  • Integrated Publishing www.tpub.com/content/doe/h1013v2/css/h1013v2_166.htm
related web pages
Related Web Pages
  • How Stuff works
  • science.howstuffworks.com/electromagnet3.htm
  • Integrated publishing
  • www.tpub.com/content/doe/h1013v2/css/h1013v2_166.htm
  • Jewel Instruments
  • www.wpiinstruments.com/solenoids/theory.htm

A solinoid is the most common type of electromagnetic acutuators.

A solinoid consists of an Iron core surrounded by coiled wire. When the coils have current flowing through them they create a magnetic field that pushes or pulls on the iron core depending on what direction the current is flowing.

major applications
Major Applications

Solenoids are used in

  • Valves
    • Water valves
    • Gas valves
  • Relays
    • Power relays
  • Switches
specific applications and uses
Specific applications and uses
  • Automatic Door locks
  • Office Equipment/ Printers
  • Electric/ Electronic Locks
  • Photographic/ Optical
  • Medical Instrumentation
  • Coin and Bill Changers
  • Cash Drawers and Automatic Teller Machines
how it works
How it works

Principles Behind Solenoids

-Lorentz’s law of electro magnetic induction states that a magnetic flux (theta) exists due to a magnetic field

The fields strength is H and the flux density is B and are related by the magnetic permeability of the substance that the field is in.

how it works continued
How it works (continued)

Principles Behind Solenoids-Continued

-Faraday’s Law of Electromagnetic Induction states that a change in the electromotive force (emf) or Voltage across the conductor causes a change in the flux.

There for current creates magnetic flux as is shown in fig 1(Mechatronics Handbook)

Fig 1

how it works continued10
How it works (continued)

Principles Behind Solenoids-Continued

-As shown in figure 3 and 4 (found in the Mechatronics Handbook) in a solenoid utilizes these characteristics to cause a B field in one direction

The strength of the field depends on the length of the solenoid (L) the number of turns (N) the magnetic permeability u and the current i

Fig 3

Fig 4

how it works continued11
How it works (continued)

Example 1 –Valve

A spring maintains the valve in its closed or open position. When a current is produced the coils around the core

Produce a magnetic force

That pushes the valve to the

Open or closed position

When the current is stopped

The force is removed and

The valve moves to its original

Position. The set up of this

Can be seen in figure 1(from www.tpub.com/



Fig. 2

  • current driving solenoid
  • Initially open or closed
  • DC or AC
  • Number of Turns
  • Voltage maintaining the core in position
selecting a solenoid
Selecting a Solenoid

Many mechanical, thermal, and electrical constraints should be considered when selecting a solenoid.

  • Force requirements
  • Electrical requirements (current driving actuator etc.)
  • Duty cycle
  • Maximum envelope dimensions
  • Temperature extremes
  • Termination requirements
  • Dimensions
  • Current flowing through coil
  • Dimension
  • Voltage across the coil
  • Distance the armature needs to move
where to buy
Where to Buy
  • WellGrow industries Corp.


  • Command Alarms


  • Saia Burgess


  • Alltronics.com


  • Penn+Giles


  • Corrosion Fluid Products Corp.