Endocrinology of reproduction
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Endocrinology of reproduction. Reproductive System. Testes Series of ducts Epididymides Ductus deferentia Urethra Accessory glands Seminal vesicles Prostate gland Bulbourethral glands. Supporting structures Scrotum 2 chambered sac that contains testes

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Endocrinology of reproduction l.jpg
Endocrinology of reproduction

Reproductive System

Anatomy of male reproductive system l.jpg


Series of ducts


Ductus deferentia


Accessory glands

Seminal vesicles

Prostate gland

Bulbourethral glands

Supporting structures


2 chambered sac that contains testes

Dartos and cremaster muscles help regulate temperature



Diamond-shaped areas between thighs

Anatomy of Male Reproductive System

Testes l.jpg




Compartments divided by septa

Seminiferous tubules

Empty into rete testis

Empties into efferent ductules

Interstitial or Leydig cells


Pass from abdominal cavity through inguinal canal to scrotum


Failure of of one or both of testes to descend into scrotum

Prevents normal sperm development


Sperm cell development l.jpg

Spermatozoa produced in seminiferous tubules

Spermatogonia divide (mitosis) to form primary spermatocytes

Primary spermatocytes (first division of meiosis) divide to form secondary spermatocytes

Secondary spermatocytes (second division of meiosis) divide to form spermatids

Spermatids develop an acrosome and flagellum

Sertoli cells nourish sperm cells and form a blood-testis barrier and produce hormones

Sperm Cell Development

Ducts l.jpg


Site of sperm cell maturation

Ductus deferens or vas deferens

Passes from epididymis into abdominal cavity

Ejaculatory duct

Joining of ductus deferens and seminal vesicle


Extends from urinary bladder to distal end of penis

Passageway for urine and male reproductive fluids

3 parts

Prostatic urethra

Membranous urethra

Spongy or penile urethra


Penis l.jpg

Three columns of erectile tissue that engorge with blood

Corpora cavernosa (2)

Corpus spongiosum (1)

Glans penis

Prepuce or foreskin covers

Circumcision: Surgical removal

External urethra orifice


Accessory glands l.jpg

Seminal vesicles

Empty into ejaculatory duct

Produce about 60% of semen

Prostate gland

Produces about 30% of semen

Bulbourethral glands

Contribute about 5% to semen



Composite of sperm cells and secretions


Discharge of semen into prostatic urethra


Forceful expulsion of semen from urethra

Accessory Glands

Regulation of sex hormone secretion l.jpg
Regulation of Sex HormoneSecretion

  • Hypothalamus releases

    • GnRH or LHRH which stimulates

      • LH or ICSH to produce testosterone

      • FSH to stimulate sperm cell formation

      • Inhibin inhibits FSH secretion from anterior pituitary

Puberty and testosterone l.jpg


Age at which individuals become capable of sexual reproduction

Before puberty small amounts of testosterone inhibit GnRH release

During puberty testosterone does not completely suppress GnRH release, resulting in increased FSH,LH, and testosterone


Produced by interstitial cells, adrenal cortex and sustentacular cells

Causes development of male sex organs in embryo, stimulates descent of testes, causes enlargement of genitals and necessary for sperm cell formation

Puberty and Testosterone

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Male Sexual Behavior andMale Sex Act

  • Male sexual behavior

    • Testosterone required to initiate and maintain

  • Male sex act

    • Complex series of reflexes that result in erection of penis, secretion of mucus into urethra, emission, ejaculation

    • Sensations result in orgasm associated with ejaculation and then resolution

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Neural Control of Erection

  • Stimulation

    • Tactile or psychological

    • Parasympathetic

      • Erection due to vasodilation of blood vessels

    • Sympathetic

      • Causes erection, emission, ejaculation

  • Erectile Dysfunction

Anatomy of female reproductive system l.jpg
Anatomy of Female Reproductive System

  • Female reproductive organs

    • Ovaries

    • Uterine tubes

    • Uterus

    • Vagina

    • External genital organs

    • Mammary glands

Ovary histology l.jpg
Ovary Histology Ligaments

Follicle and oocyte development l.jpg

Oogenesis is the production of a secondary oocyte in ovaries Ligaments

Oogonia are cells from which oocytes develop

Primary oocytes are surround by granulosa cells and called a primordial follicle

Primordial follicle becomes a primary follicle when oocyteenlarges and cells change

Primary follicle becomes secondary follicle and enlarges to form mature or graafian follicle

Usually only one is ovulated, others degenerate

Primary oocyte completes first meiotic division to produce secondary oocyte and a polar body

Secondary oocyte begins second meiotic division, which stops in metaphase II

Follicle and Oocyte Development

Ovulation and follicle fate l.jpg

Ovulation Ligaments

Follicle swells and ruptures, secondary oocyte is released from ovary

Second meiotic division completed when secondary oocyte unites with sperm cell to form zygote

Fate of the follicle

Graafian follicle become corpus luteum

If fertilization occurs, corpus luteum persists

If no fertilization, becomes corpus albicans

Ovulation and Follicle Fate

Uterine tubes and uterus l.jpg

Uterine or fallopian tubes or oviducts Ligaments

Open directly into peritoneal cavity to receive oocyte from ovary

Transport oocyte or zygote from ovary to uterus


Parts: Body, isthmus, cervix

Composed of 3 layers

Perimetrium: Serous membrane

Myometrium: Smooth muscle

Endometrium: Mucous membrane

Uterine Tubes and Uterus

Vagina and perineum l.jpg

Vagina Ligaments

Female organ of copulation

Allows menstrual flow and childbirth

Hymen covers the vaginal opening or orifice


Divided into two triangles

Urogenital: Contains the external genitalia

Anal triangle

Clinical perineum

Region between vagina and anus

Episiotomy: Incision to prevent tearing during childbirth

Vagina and Perineum

Female external genitalia l.jpg
Female External Genitalia Ligaments

  • Vulva or pudendum or external female genitalia

    • Vestibule: Space

      • Labia minora: Form borders on sides

      • Clitoris: Erectile structure

        • Corpora cavernosa

        • Corpora spongiosa

    • Labia majora

      • Unite to form mons pubis

Female perineum l.jpg
Female Perineum Ligaments

Mammary glands l.jpg
Mammary Glands Ligaments

  • Organs of milk production located within mammae or breasts

    • Consist of glandular lobes and adipose tissue

    • Cooper’s ligaments support the breasts

Puberty and menstrual cycle l.jpg

Puberty Ligaments

Begins with menarche or first episode of menstrual bleeding

Begins when GnRH levels increase

Menstrual Cycle

About 28 days long



Proliferative phase

Secretory phase


Amenorrhea: Absence of a menstrual cycle

Menopause: Cessation of menstrual cycles

Puberty and Menstrual Cycle

Menstrual cycle l.jpg
Menstrual Cycle Ligaments

Female sexual behavior and sex act l.jpg

Female sexual behavior Ligaments

Depends on hormones

Androgens and steroids

Depends on psychological factors

Female sex act

Parasympathetic stimulation

Blood engorgement in clitoris and around vaginal opening

Erect nipples

Mucouslike fluid extruded into vagina and through wall

Orgasm not necessary for fertilization to occur

Female Sexual Behaviorand Sex Act

Female fertility and pregnancy l.jpg

Female fertility Ligaments

Sperm ejaculated into vagina during copulation and transported through cervix and uterine tubes to ampulla

Sperm cells undergo capacitation


Oocyte can be fertilized up to 24 hours after ovulation

Sperm cells can be viable for up to 6 days in female tract

Ectopic pregnancy: Implantation occurs anywhere other than uterine cavity

Female Fertility and Pregnancy

Control of pregnancy l.jpg

Behavioral Ligaments methods


Coitus interruptus

Rhythm method

Barrier methods


Male and female


Cervical cap

Spermicidal agents


Chemical methods

Oral contraceptives

Injections as Depo-Provera


Morning-after pills

Surgical methods


Tubal ligation


Control of Pregnancy

Effects of aging l.jpg

Male Ligaments

Decrease in size and weight of testes

Decrease in sperm production

Prostate gland enlarges and increase in cancer

Impotence is age-related

Decrease in sexual activity



Decrease in size of uterus and vaginal wall thins

Age related increase in breast, uterine, ovarian cancer

Effects of Aging