Pertemuan 11(Off-Class) Power and Influence Matakuliah : MPG09344-010 / Leadership and Organisation Tahun : 2007 Versi : versi/revisi 1
Learning Outcomes After studying this chapter students should be able to: • Understand how position an personal attributes can be a source of power for leaders. • Understand the process by which power is acquired or lost in organisation. • Understand the major findings in research on consequences of power for leadership effectiveness. • Understand the different psychological processes that explain how leaders influence people. • Understand the different outcomes of influence attempts and the factors that determine the outcome. • Understand the different types of influence tactics used in organisations. • Understand how these tactics are typically used in influence attempts with subordinates, peers, or superiors. • Understand the major findings in research on the relative effectiveness of different influence tactics.
Outline Materi • Conceptions of Power and Authority • Power Types and Sources • How Power is Acquired or Lost • Consequences of Position and Personal Power • How Much Power Should Leaders Have? • Types of Influence Behaviour • Power and Influence Behaviour • Research on Influence tactics • Summary • Review and Discussion Questions • Cases
Conceptions of Power and Authority • Power • Power involves the capacity of one party (the “agent”) to influence another party (the “target”). • Power is usually used to describe the absolute capacity of an individual agent to influence the behavior or attitudes of one or more designated target persons at a given point in time.
Authority • Involves the rights, prerogatives, obligations, and duties associated with particular positions in an organisation or social system. • The “Scope of Authority”
Outcomes of influence attempts • Commitment • Compliance • Resistance • Influence Processes • Instrumental Compliance • Internalization • Personal Identification
Power Types and Sources • French and Raven Power Taxonomy • Reward Power • Coercive Power • Legitimate Power • Expert Power • Referent Power
Different Types of Power • Position Power • Legitimate Power • Reward Power • Coercive Power • Information Power • Ecological Power • Personal Power • Referent Power • Expert Power
Legitimate Power • Power stemming from formal authority over work activities (French and Raven, 1959) • Compliance with legitimate rules and requests • The amount of legitimate power and one’s scope of authority • Organization charter • Written job description • Employment contract
Guidelines for using Legitimate Authority • Make polite. Clear requests • Explain the reasons for a request • Don’t exceed your scope of authority • Verify authority if necessary • Follow proper channels • Follow up to verify compliance • Insist on compliance if appropriate
Reward Power • The perception by the target person that an agent controls important resources and rewards desired by the target person. • Stems in part from formal authority to allocate resources and rewards. • Reward power is most commonly exercised with an explicit or implicit promise to give the target person something under the agent’s control for carrying out a request or performing a task
Guidelines for using Reward Power • Offer the type of rewards that people desire • Offer rewards that are fair and ethical • Don’t promise more than you can deliver • Explain the criteria for giving rewards and keep it simple • Provide rewards as promised if requirements are met • Use rewards symbolically (not in a manipulative way)
Coercive Power • Based on authority over punishments, which varies greatly across different types of organizations. • The coercive power subordinates have over superiors varies greatly from one kind of organisation to another. • It is best to avoid using coercion except when absolutely necessary, because it is difficult to use and likely to result in undesirable side effects.
Closing • Review and Discussion Questions • Cases • Restview Hospital • Sporting Goods Store • Supplementary Reading • “Relative power and influence strategy: The effects of agent-target organizational power on superiors' choices of influence strategies” (http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=111981117&sid=5&Fmt=3&clientId=68814&RQT=309&VName=PQD )