Gender roles tactics and force multipliers in terrorism
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Gender Roles, Tactics, and Force Multipliers in Terrorism. Chapter 5. Learning Objectives: Chapter 5. Summarize the tactics of modern terrorism. List and describe four force multipliers. Discuss historical and current roles of women in terrorism.

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Learning objectives chapter 5
Learning Objectives: Chapter 5

  • Summarize the tactics of modern terrorism.

  • List and describe four force multipliers.

  • Discuss historical and current roles of women in terrorism.

  • Outline the tactical importance of female terrorists.

Learning objectives chapter 51
Learning Objectives: Chapter 5

  • Define the types of threats posed by technological terrorism.

  • Explain the effects of biological, chemical and radiological weapons.

  • Characterize the possibility and possible outcomes of nuclear terrorism.

Learning objectives chapter 52
Learning Objectives: Chapter 5

  • Discuss the role of the media as a force multiplier.

  • Summarize transnational economic targeting in the tourist, energy, and transportation industries.

  • Summarize theories of suicide bombing.

Terrorism tactics
Terrorism Tactics

  • Bombing

  • Hijacking

  • Arson

  • Assault

  • Kidnapping

  • Hostage taking

  • Weapons of mass destruction

Force multipliers
Force Multipliers

  • Transnational support

    • Increases terrorist groups ability to move and hide

  • Technology

    • Allows a small group to launch a deadly attack

  • Media coverage

    • Makes minor group appear to be politically important

  • Religion

    • Transcends normative political and social boundaries

The bomb
The Bomb

  • Philosophy of the bomb

    • The only way to communicate with the social order was to destroy it

    • Terrorists tend to increase their effectiveness in bombing by applying improved explosive technology to their weapons

  • Thermobaric bomb

    • Spreads fuel in the air and then ignites it

Moscow bombing
Moscow Bombing



    • Did it surprise you that the suicide bombers were women?

    • Would you say that the location and the timing of the bombing were such as to create a level of fear as much as to cause casualties? Support your view.

Women and terrorism
Women and Terrorism

  • Female terrorists are not new to the history of terrorism:

    • 18th century France

    • 19th century Russia

    • 20th century US

    • Rebels in Ireland

    • Western revolutionary groups

  • Women are actively recruited by religious terrorists today

Women and terrorism1
Women and Terrorism

  • Role of women in terrorist groups is more closely determined by the political orientation of an organization than its tactics

  • Women are more attracted to domestic terrorist organizations than international groups

    • Women also have opportunities for leadership in revolutionary (domestics) groups

    • International terrorists try to defend a traditional culture that limits the role of women

Women and terrorism2
Women and Terrorism

  • Revolutionary groups

    • Ulricke Meinhof and Leila Khalid served as combatants, leaders and served as inspiration for supporters

  • Secular and religious terrorist groups

    • Women increasingly receive combat assignments because they are so numerous

Impact of terrorism on women
Impact of Terrorism on Women

  • Women have a greater sense of vulnerability to crime, and these feelings seem to transfer to terrorism

  • Israeli study

    • Women seemed to be more scared of terrorism than men, because women experienced terrorism more vicariously

    • Women were more likely to suffer from posttraumatic stress and seek assistance following terrorist attacks

    • Women approached the fear of terrorism with problem-solving strategies

Women and terrorism3
Women and Terrorism



    • Do you consider it somewhat ironic that while women are considered subordinate to men – their role being that of wives and mothers; they are recruited as suicide bombers?

    • Do agree with statement that it is easier for women to go through security checkpoints than it is for men? What would you suggest as a counter-measure?

    • How does this video align with the Israeli study?

Overlooking female terrorists
Overlooking Female Terrorists

  • Researchers do not tend to think of women as terrorists or criminals

    • When they do look at females, researchers usually view women as victims

  • Law enforcement officers do not tend to arrest females

  • It is generally assumed that terrorism is a violent male occupation


  • The use of computers to attack technological targets or physical attacks on computer networks

    • An attractive low-risk strategy

  • Computers allow terrorist groups to remain connected, providing a means for covert discussions and anonymity

  • Greatest fear of cyberterrorism concerns catastrophic or multiple system failures

Wmd biological agents
WMD: Biological Agents

  • Modern arsenals contain bacterial weapons and viral weapons, with microbes cultured and refined, or weaponized, to increase their ability to kill

  • The Center for Disease Control classifies the most threatening from the groups as smallpox, anthrax, plague, botulism, tularemia, and hemorrhagic fever

Us biological attacks after 1980
US Biological Attacks after 1980

  • Bacteria

    • Religious group in Oregon spread bacteria in area salad bars to sicken potential voters

    • Hundreds of people suffered food poisoning

  • Anthrax

    • Cases were reported in Florida, Washington, DC, New York, New Jersey, and Connecticut

    • Public health response was disorganized

    • The case is still under investigation

Wmd chemical radiological
WMD: Chemical & Radiological

  • There are four types of chemical agents: nerve agents, blood agents, choking agents, and blistering agents

  • Radiological weapons are more head resistant and lasts longer than chemicals

    • Exposure to radiation can produce short-term burns and long-term heath problems

Highly enriched uranium heu
Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU)

  • HEU is plentiful and easy to obtain

  • HEU is so potent that it could be used in a dirty bomb or a nuclear device

  • Terrorists could build a device with HEU without the assistance of a nuclear state

Nuclear terrorism
Nuclear Terrorism

  • The most fearful scenario with WMDs involves a nuclear explosion

  • Tel Aviv University Scholars suggest that the probability of nuclear terrorism is low

  • The nuclear threat is based on the crime causation model: victim, opportunity to commit a crime, and the criminals’ desire

Nuclear terrorism misconceptions
Nuclear Terrorism Misconceptions

  • Security is never 100% effective.

  • The nuclear black market does not exist.

  • Building a nuclear bomb is a complex process.

  • Nuclear defense should be based on realistic, comprehensive scenarios.

  • We should create total intelligence pictures of terrorist groups beyond nuclear terrorism.

  • Total protection is not possible, but we can tip the scales in our favor.

Media force multiplier
Media Force Multiplier

  • Both governments and terrorists see the media as a force multiplier:

    • Security forces (symbols of sanity in a world turned upside down) assume the role of heroes who are trying to restore order

    • Constant reporting makes small terrorist groups seem important

    • With repeated media coverage, the striking power of the terrorist group is magnified


  • Terrorism does not seem to have an impact on domestic travel

  • Terrorism most frequently affects international travelers

  • Terrorism against tourists has a negative economic impact


  • Fossil fuels present tempting targets:

    • They represent the power and strength of the industrialized world

    • Strikes against oil refineries have an economic impact on the West

Energy attacks
Energy Attacks

  • Saudi Arabia

    • al Qaeda sought to destroy production facilities; destroy transfer systems; and target individual oil workers, especially foreigners

  • Pakistan and Balochista

    • The Bugtis resent and resist Pashtun incursion into their native land, which has led to sharp fighting and a guerrilla war


  • After the September 11 attacks, the federal government immediately budgeted $4.8 billion to protect the aviation industry

  • Indonesia, Malaysia, and Singapore have joined to protest insurance premiums on ships traveling through the Strait of Malacca

  • Critics of homeland-security policies argue that ports remain unsecured because of the costs associated with increased protection

Hidden bombs
Hidden Bombs



    • Do you agree or disagree with ErrollSouthers that the release of information by the government instils level of confidence in the public. Support your view.

Theory of suicide terrorism
Theory of Suicide Terrorism

  • Pape (2005) believes three factors must be in place before a suicide terror campaign occurs:

    • Nationalistic or ethnic group must be resisting the occupation of a foreign power

    • Foreign power must have democratic government whose voters will not routinely allow the slaughter and repression of the people in the occupied area

    • Must be a difference in the religions of the occupying power and the people living under occupation

Teenage suicide bombers
Teenage Suicide Bombers



    • What are your thoughts on children and adolescents being used as suicide bombers?

    • Do you think most suicide bombers freely decide to engage in suicide bombing, or do you think they are manipulated into their actions? Support your views.

Models of suicide attacks
Models of Suicide Attacks

  • Gunaratna sees three things that all attacks have in common: secrecy, reconnaissance, and rehearsal

  • The Hamas model involves a professional group that plans and executes the attack, and a support group to prepare the attacker

    • For many years, researchers believed that this was the only model for suicide bombing

Models of suicide attacks1
Models of Suicide Attacks

  • Cronin finds that different models emerged over time:

    • The LTTE trained suicide bombers

    • The PKK leadership coerced victims

    • The bombings in Chechnya represent a different combination of social and psychological factors

Chapter take aways
Chapter Take Aways

  • The tactics of terrorism are straightforward and simple, but they are employed in innovative ways.

  • The study of terrorism is complex as a result of tactical innovation.

  • Force multipliers – technology, transnational support, religion, and the media – enhance the power of terrorist groups.

Chapter take aways1
Chapter Take Aways

  • It is important to understand the tactical impact of gender on terrorism, but research on the roles of women has been neglected.

  • Technological attacks can be made more effective by using WMD, cyber-attacks, or economic targeting.

  • Suicide bombing has become a particularly terrorizing tactic, but there is no single explanation for either understanding or preventing it.