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Manifest Destiny and Its Legacy [1841-1850] • Maine boundary with Canada • Oregon boundary settlement • Texas Revolution and Texas Annexation • Mexican War and the Mexican Cession • Overland Trails • California Gold Rush • Compromise of 1850 • Sectional Tensions
Manifest Destiny • “Manifest Destiny — a phrase used by leaders and politicians in the 1840s to explain continental expansion by the United States — revitalized a sense of "mission" or national destiny for many Americans.” • An American political and societal belief that it was the United States’ God-given right, its apparent destiny, to overspread the continent of North America • John L. O’Sullivan - (1839) - notably in 1845
John L. O’Sullivan - Manifest Destiny • “It is time for opposition to the Annexation of Texas to cease. . . . It is time for the common duty of Patriotism to the Country to succeed—if this claim will not be recognized, it is at least time for common sense to acquiesce [agree] with decent grace in the inevitable and the irrevocable. • . . . Why, were other reasoning wanting, in favor of now elevating this question of the reception of Texas into the Union, out of the lower region of our past party dissensions, up to its proper level of a high and broad nationality, it surely is to be found, found abundantly, in the manner in which other nations have undertaken to intrude themselves into it, between us and the proper parties to the case, in a spirit of hostile interference against us, for the avowed object of thwarting our policy and hampering our power, limiting our greatness and checking the fulfillment of our manifest destiny to overspread the continent allotted by Providence for the free development of our yearly multiplying millions. . . .”
High birthrate and the rapid influx of immigrants (Irish and German) = demand for space. Estimated 4 million Americans moved west between 1820 and 1850. Panic of 1819 and Panic of 1837 caused people to look to the West for a fresh start Frontier land =: inexpensive in some cases, free. Economic opportunity for commerce and entrepreneurial enterprise Land ownership = wealth Land ownership =: self-sufficiency political power Independent self-rule OR popular sovereignty Opportunity for West Coast ports for trade Manifest Destiny - Why?
The Conquest of the West • Manifest Destiny • Aggressive and ‘Fantastic’ Advertising • Oregon Country • Republic of Texas • Mexican War (1846-1848) • Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo
The Texas Revolution (1835-1836) • Texans angered by Mexican • government policy • Texans refuse to convert to • Catholicism • Texans refuse to give up • slavery • Fighting erupts between • Tejanos and Mexican army • •Texans declare independence from Mexico • Famous battles: • Alamo, San Jacinto, • Goliad, et al
The Texas Revolution and the formation of the Lone Star Republic • 1835-- Texas declares independence from Mexico • 1836-- Mexican army led by Santa Anna goes to Texas to crush rebellion • Battle of the Alamo • Battle of San Jacinto • 1836-- Santa Anna captured by Sam Houston and signs treaty establishing the independence of Texas • 1841-- Santa Anna returns to presidency of Mexico • 1844-- James K. Polk is elected president of the United States • 1845-- Santa Anna presidency overthrown in Mexico • 1845-- United States annexes Texas. Mexico does not recognize Texas independence or annexation
President James K. Polk • Tennessee Congressman • “Young Hickory” - Andrew Jackson protege • “Napoleon of the Stump” • President from 1845-1849 • Ardent Expansionist
The Oregon Controversy, 1846: “54º 40’ or Fight” Resolved by treaty with the British in 1846
The Mexican-American War [1846-1848] • 1846-- Polk orders General Taylor to advance to the Rio Grande. Mexico attacks. • 1846-- The United States declares war on Mexico • 1846-- U.S. and Britain settle Oregon boundary dispute • 1847-- U.S. Army occupies Mexico City • 1847-- Santa Anna is stripped of military command • 1848-- Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ratified by U.S. Congress • 1849-- James K. Polk dies months after leaving office.
General Zachary Taylor • Born in Orange County, Virginia in 1784 • In 1808 Zachary joined the army as an infantry officer • During the War of 1812, he distinguished himself under William Henry Harrison. • General and popular hero of the Mexican American War • “Old Rough and Ready” • The 12th President of the United States
General Winfield Scott • Born in 1786 near Petersburg, Virginia • He practiced law, served in the army • War of 1812, was promoted to the rank of lieutenant colonel • Scott undertook a successful five-mo nth campaign from Vera Cruz to Mexico City • In 1852 Congress offered Scott the pay, rank, and emoluments of a lieutenant general, the first person to hold that office since George Washington • “Old Fuss and Feathers” • Whig party's unsuccessful candidate for President in 1852
Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna • Born in 1795 in Japala in the province of Veracruz • At 15 became a cadet in the Spanish Army stationed in Mexico • Fought in the Mexican War of Independence in 1821 • Led a revolt against the new emperor, Agustin de Iturbide • Defeated the Spanish invasion in 1829 • President of Mexico 11 times • Often ruled as a dictator but always overthrown
Mexican-American War: American “Firsts” • The United States' first foreign war. • The first war anywhere in the world to be photographed. • The first war in which steamboats played an important role. • The first war in which newspaper correspondents regularly reported from the seat of war. • The first war in which graduates of the U.S. Military Academy at West Point participated. Among these were a number of officers who would later face each other across the battlefields of the Civil War: Robert E. Lee,Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson, Braxton Bragg, Ulysses S. Grant, George Meade, George McClellan, and William T. Sherman, to name but a few.
Mexican-American War: Significance In the end, the Mexican American War had an immense impact on United States history. • Thirteen thousand American lives were lost = two thousand were on the battlefield. • It added over 500,000 square miles to the American frontier. • It helped America to fulfill its “manifest destiny,” extending it from the Atlantic to the Pacific. • With this new territory, however, came disputes that led to further sectional divide and ultimately contributed to the Civil War.
California Gold Rush Country •1849 - Sutter’s Mill Set of a ‘rush’ of speculators headed for California So many people arrived in CA during 1848-1849 that California was able to attain statehood in 1850.
California: Spanish Missions and Presidios • Much of the coast had been settled by Spanish Catholic missions and Presidios • Were set up to secure settlements and provide for local American Indians • Although part of Mexican government = VERY loosely connected
California and the Gold Rush: California Statehood • California: Gold discovered in 1848 - after Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo • Gold Rush of 1849 • Drew people from all over the US and world • Enough settlers to gain statehood by 1850 (Compromise of 1850) as a “Free-Soil” State.