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Objectives. How should Gemini respond in terms of scientific effectiveness to the the current competition from Subaru, ESO and perhaps even Keck? What does the Gemini Science Staff want to see discussed and proposed at Aspen 2003 What is our vision of the Future?.

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objectives
Objectives
  • How should Gemini respond in terms of scientific effectiveness to the the current competition from Subaru, ESO and perhaps even Keck?
  • What does the Gemini Science Staff want to see discussed and proposed at Aspen 2003
    • What is our vision of the Future?
the gemini telescopes are designed to compete by exploiting d q
The Gemini telescopes are designed to compete by exploiting D/q

For background or sky noise limited observations:

S Telescope Diameter (D) 

N Delivered Image Diameter (q)B

Speed =1/Time to given S/Na D2 /q2 . h/B

.

Where:is the product of the system throughput and detector QE

B is the instantaneous background flux

gemini south ir performance and some results
Gemini South IR Performance and some results

4.7mm R=100,000

Rogers et al (in prep.)

slide4

Flamingos / Gemini-S

Flamingos on Gemini-S

Deep J,H,K images in 1 field

south of the Orion Core

Total of 4hr integration

- 0.4 arcsec images

Preliminary ResultsJ,H,K Luminosity Functions show the expected peak near 0.3 M(solar)a slow decline or plateau in the brown dwarf regime (J~14.5 - 17.5 mag) for unreddened objectsA more rapid decline below the deuterium-burning limit and indications of a cut-off at a few M(Jupiter)Observations are complete to well below K=19mag.

Lucas et al

ir optimization works gemini south ir 4 micron commissioning images of galactic center
IR Optimization works:Gemini-South IR (4 micron) Commissioning Images of Galactic Center
  • Simons & Becklin 1992
  • IRTF (3.6m) - L’
  • 16,000 images shift/add
  • An entire night….
  • Gemini South + ABU + fast tip/tilt
  • Brackett 
  • FWHM ~ 0.35”
  • 1 minute integration
slide6

14 mJy/pixel after further IR Optimization

Gemini North: M87 jet at 10 mm– Deepest image ever taken in the mid IR

Perlman, Sparks, et al.

HST/F300W, 0.3 m

OSCIR, 10.8 m

  • Sensitivity (1, 1 h): 0.028 mJy/pix (pix scale = 0.089”)

0.1 mJy on point source

relative through put of gemini silver vs aluminum telescopes 450 1100nm
Relative through-put of “Gemini Silver” vs. Aluminum Telescopes (450-1100nm)

1.4

  • Ratio of System Transmission
  • Three Reflecting Surfaces

1.0

gemini in the optical gmos north comes on line
Gemini in the Optical – GMOS North comes on-line

60min – 140min

per filter

Seeing (FWHM)

0.5 – 0.7 arcsec

5 sigma detection limits :

g'=27.5 mag

r'=27.2 mag

i'=26.3 mag

GMOS on Gemini 5.5’ x 5.5’

PMN2314+0201 Quasar at z=4.11 Gemini SV PI: Isobel Hook

gmos queue observing 2002a
GMOS Queue Observing 2002A

Summary of the completion rates as fraction of programs

==========================================================

Band Completion rate

>90% >50% <50%

-----------------------------------------

1 10/14=0.71 11/14=0.79 3/14=0.21

2 2/8 =0.25 3/8 =0.38 5/8 =0.63

3 2/8 =0.25 4/8 =0.50 4/8 =0.50

4 1/11=0.09 2/11 =0.18 9/11=0.82

Many observations in band 3 and 4 were taken in poor observing conditions,

and the programs in these bands with significant data were programs that

could tolerate CC=70% or worse, and seeing of 1arcsec or worse.

Gemini North reliability >90% (<10% down time)

GMOS Observing efficiency

(shutter open/elapsed) ~ 70%

gmos evolution of ages and metalicity in clusters from z 1 to present epoch j rgensen 2002
GMOS: Evolution of ages and metalicity in Clusters from z= 1 to present epoch (Jørgensen 2002)

The S/N needed for this type of work is

20-40 per Angstrom in the restframe of the cluster

GMOS can deliver this.

5.5 hrs sky subtracted

wavelength

example object n s subtracted
Example object: N&S subtracted

I=23.8 z=1.07

[OII] 3727at 7700Å

The GDDS team

gdds ultra super preliminary results
GDDS: ultra-super-preliminary results

These are just the‘easy’ ones so far!

Full 100,000 secswill pound on z=1.5old red galaxiesN&S works! Ultimate ‘sky null’ technique.

Could reach I=27 in 106 secs on 30m

The GDDS team

3c324 3 d data cube at z 1 2

Wavelength/velocity

[OII]3727 structure has two velocity components at +/-400km/s

3C324 3-D data cubeat z = 1.2

Y ( 5 arcsec )

X (7 arcsec)

Bunker et al (2002)

cirpass early results first use of a near ir ifu on an 8m class telescope
CIRPASS early results– first use of anear-IR IFU on an 8m-class telescope.

The example from the z=1.2 radio galaxy 3C324. Dispersion runs horizontally, spatial direction is vertical; each of the 500 IFU lenslets produces a spectrum 2 pixels high.

The preliminary processing (basic sky subtraction and cosmic ray rejection) of this single 20 minute exposure shows a very clear detection of the redshifted [OIII] 500.7nm emission line (centre of the frame).

http://www.gemini.edu/sciops/instruments/cirpass/cirpassDemoScience.html

GMOS – IFU now available on Gemini North

CIRPASS – IR IFU will be available on Gemini South

in Service Mode in 2003A

exploring the gemini context

2012

2015

Gemini N

?

Gemini S

2000

2010

Exploring the Gemini context

2000

2010

SIRTF

Keck I&II

Keck-Inter.

ESO-VLTI

SOFIA

NGST

ALMA SIM

VLA-upgrade

SUBARU

UT1,UT2,UT3,UT4

Magellan 1&2

HET LBT

CELT

LSST

OWL

VISTA

and maybe

GSMT…

The decade of adaptive optics

The era of the “giants”

exploring the gemini context and responding
Exploring the Gemini context- and responding

2000

2010

SIRTF

Keck I&II

Keck-Inter.

ESO-VLTI

SOFIA

NGST

ALMA SIM

VLA-upgrade

SUBARU

UT1,UT2,UT3,UT4

Magellan 1&2

HET LBT

CELT

LSST

OWL

VISTA

and maybe

GSMT…

Michelle NIFS

2012

2015

Gemini N

?

ALTAIR + LGS

GMOS

Gemini S

GAOS -> MCAO

2000

2010

GNIRS NICI

Flam. 2

T-RECS

The decade of adaptive optics

The era of the “giants”

our communities have struggled to deliver instruments
Our communities have struggled to deliver instruments

1.0

Slip Factor = original schedule + slip

original schedule

Schedule Performance

Data complied by

Adrian Russell

gemini north time distribution

Queue Observing

Gemini’s queue support

threshold

Gemini-North Time Distribution

New Instrument Mode Tests

Above 50%

Classical time allocated

ALTAIR LGS

NIFS

ALTAIR (cont.)

Hokupa’a-S

MICHELLE

ALTAIR

gemini south time distribution

Queue Observing

Gemini’s queue support

threshold

Gemini-South Time Distribution

Above 50%

Classical time allocated

New Modes

GNIRS (cont)

NICI

MCAO

FLAMINGOS-2

bHROS

SCAO

GNIRS

GSAOI

GMOS-S

T-ReCS (cont)

T-ReCS

challenges
Challenges
  • Instruments, instruments, instruments……
    • Gemini South will be without facility instruments until mid 2003 from the user perspective
  • And instrument delivery schedules constrain science availability of Gemini Telescopes
  • How do we maximize our science effectiveness?
    • Should we commission everything we get?
responding to the future
Responding to the Future
  • MCAO
    • Building a system
  • Aspen 2003 Instrumentation Workshop
    • Planning Gemini instruments for 2007+
  • The competition in the next decade (post 2012)
    • Exploring our “market place”
defining the role of gemini in the era of a 6 5m ngst

R = 30,000

R = 5,000

R = 1,000

R = 5

Defining the role of Gemini in the era of a 6.5m NGST

Assuming a detected S/N of 10 for NGST on a point source, with 4x1000s integration

Time

gain

GEMINI

advantage

1

102

NGST advantage

104

redefining wide field in the 8 10m era
Redefining “wide field” in the 8 – 10m era

PMN2314+0201 Quasar at z=4.11

5 sigma

detection

limits :

g'=27.5 mag

r'=27.2 mag

i'=26.3 mag

>1000 objects

NICMOS HDF 49”x49”

GMOS on Gemini 5.5’ x 5.5’

235 Objects down to

AB mag 28.8 at 1.6 mm

the future and exploiting our strengths
The Future and Exploiting our strengths
  • Image quality
    • Diffraction limited, near IR AO, thermal IR
    • Optical – exploiting queue scheduling -- AO enhanced seeing
  • Efficiency
    • Minimizing emissivity -- Maximizing through-put
    • Highly multiplexed spectroscopy
    • The “automated queue”
  • Innovation
    • How do we sustain innovation is such a competitive environment?

But let’s look a little further ahead……

entering the era of giants the challengers in the post 2012 world1

CELT

GSMT

Entering the Era of Giants- the Challengers in the post 2012 World

The 30m challengers

The ~6-8m challenger

NGST

The 100m challenger

OWL

looking forward to 2012 space verses the ground
Looking Forward to 2012 Space verses the Ground

Ground based

territory

NGST territory

Takamiya (2001)

comparative performance of a 30m gsmt with a 6 5m ngst

R = 10,000

R = 1,000

R = 5

Comparative performance of a 30m GSMT with a 6.5m NGST

Assuming a detected S/N of 10 for NGST on a point source, with 4x1000s integration

GSMT

advantage

NGST advantage

gsmt galaxy evolution
GSMT: Galaxy Evolution

Courtesy of M. Bolte

resolved stellar populations results from mcao simulation
Resolved Stellar Populations- results from MCAO simulation

GSMT/CELT

NGST

(Simulations 120 sec x 15 coadds)

search for exo biospheres solar system @30 light years gilmozzi et al 2002

OWL 100m

J Band

80% Strehl

104 sec

0.4’’ seeing

Search for exo-biospheres:Solar system @30 light years(Gilmozzi et al 2002)

O.1’’

Earth

Jupiter

gemini s environment aspen 2003 our window of opportunity
Gemini’s Environment,“Aspen 2003”& our window of opportunity

2000

2010

SIRTF

Keck I&II

Keck-Inter.

ESO-VLTI

SOFIA

NGST

ALMA SIM

VLA-upgrade

SUBARU

UT1,UT2,UT3,UT4

Magellan 1&2

HET LBT

CELT

LSST

OWL

VISTA

and maybe

GSMT…

Mid-IR opportunity?

Multi-IFU & MCAO++?

Michelle NIFS

2012

2015

Gemini N

?

ALTAIR + LGS

GMOS

Gemini S

GAOS -> MCAO

2000

2010

Aspen

2003

GNIRS NICI

Flam. 2

Extreme AO?

T-RECS

Seeing enhanced

R=1,000,000 spectroscopy?

The decade of adaptive optics

The era of the “giants”

gemini s environment aspen 2003 our window of opportunity1
Gemini’s Environment,“Aspen 2003”& our window of opportunity

2000

2010

SIRTF

Keck I&II

Keck-Inter.

ESO-VLTI

SOFIA

NGST

ALMA SIM

VLA-upgrade

In this evolving environment, timing

as well as performance is key

SUBARU

UT1,UT2,UT3,UT4

Magellan 1&2

HET LBT

CELT

LSST

OWL

VISTA

and maybe

GSMT…

Mid-IR opportunity?

Multi-IFU & MCAO++?

Michelle NIFS

2012

2015

Gemini N

?

ALTAIR + LGS

GMOS

Gemini S

GAOS -> MCAO

2000

2010

Aspen

2003

GNIRS NICI

Flam. 2

Extreme AO?

T-RECS

Seeing enhanced

R=1,000,000 spectroscopy?

The decade of adaptive optics

The era of the “giants”

conclusions and thoughts
Conclusions and thoughts
  • Staying competitive in the 2010 decade is going to be challenging:
    • We will have to [very thoughtfully] play to our strengths
    • Gemini: IR performance, image quality Mauna Kea and Cerro Pachon
    • SUBARU: Extremely versatile high-performance telescope, unprecedented wide field performance, Mauna Kea
    • ESO…….. ?????
  • By 2012, in the era of, ALMA, NGST and “the emerging Giants” we must be globally acknowledged, world-class science machines
    • But probably quite specialized ‘queue based’ machines
    • And ‘classical’ time will be allocated to Project Teams (and their instruments), not individuals…..
      • optimum use of “remote observing” to create “virtual teams”
challenges1
Challenges
  • Instruments, instruments, instruments……
    • Gemini South will be without facility instruments until mid 2003 from the user perspective
  • And instrument delivery schedules constrain science availability of Gemini Telescopes
  • Should we commission everything we get?
conclusions and thoughts1
Conclusions and thoughts
  • We must understand our respective “market places” – starting today
  • Can we continue to duplicate facility instruments at $7M - $15M each?
  • Should we begin to explore time exchange models?