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  1. INFORMATION SECURITY MANAGEMENT Lecture 4: Information Security Policy You got to be careful if you don’t know where you’re going, because you might not get there. – Yogi Berra

  2. Principles of Information Security Management Include the following characteristics that will be the focus of the current course (six P’s): • Planning • Policy • Programs • Protection • People • Project Management Chapters 2 & 3 Chapter 4

  3. Introduction “The success of an information resources protection program depends on the policy generated, and on the attitude of management toward securing information on automated systems” Policy is the essential foundation of an effective information security program

  4. Policy • Explains the will of the organization’s management in controlling the behavior of employees • Policies are the least expensive means of control and often the most difficult to implement

  5. Bulls-eye Model

  6. Policy, Standards, and Practices • Policy & Types • Enterprise • Issue-specific • Systems-specific • Standards • Practices

  7. Enterprise Information Security Policy (EISP) • Sets strategic direction, scope, and tone for organization’s security efforts • Assigns responsibilities for various areas of information security

  8. EISP Elements • Overview of the corporate philosophy on security • Information about information security organization and information security roles • Responsibilities for security that are shared by all members of the organization • Responsibilities for security that are unique to each role within the organization

  9. Example: UNCW Security Policy CISO EISP: • Enterprise Information Security Policy Additional Examples: • •

  10. Example ESIP Components • Statement of purpose • Information technology security elements • Need for information technology security • Information technology security responsibilities and roles • Reference to other information technology standards and guidelines

  11. Issue-Specific Security Policy (ISSP) • Provides detailed, targeted guidance • Protects organization from inefficiency and ambiguity • Protects organization from inefficiency and ambiguity (cont’d.) • Indemnifies the organization against liability for an employee’s inappropriate or illegal system use

  12. Issue-Specific Security Policy (cont’d.) • Every organization’s ISSP should: • Address specific technology-based systems • Require frequent updates • Contain an issue statement on the organization’s position on an issue

  13. ISSP - Topics • Email and internet use • Minimum system configurations • Prohibitions against hacking • Home use of company-owned computer equipment • Use of personal equipment on company networks • Use of telecommunications technologies • Use of photocopy equipment

  14. Example of ISSP CISO ISSP: Acceptable Use of Systems Policy

  15. Components of the ISSP • Statement of Purpose • Authorized Access and Usage of Equipment • Prohibited Usage of Equipment • Systems management • Violations of policy • Policy review and modification • Limitations of liability

  16. Implementing the ISSP • Common approaches • Several independent documents • A single comprehensive document • A modular document that unifies policy creation and administration

  17. System-Specific Security Policy • System-specific security policies (SysSPs) frequently do not look like other types of policy • SysSPs can be separated into: • Management guidance • Technical specifications • Or combined

  18. Managerial Guidance SysSPs • Created by management to guide the implementation and configuration of technology • Applies to any technology that affects the confidentiality, integrity or availability of information • Informs technologists of management intent

  19. Technical Specifications SysSPs • System administrators’ directions on implementing managerial policy • General methods of implementing technical controls • Access control lists • Configuration rules

  20. Technical Specifications SysSPs (cont’d.) • Access control lists • Include the user access lists, matrices, and capability tables that govern the rights and privileges • Enable administrations to restrict access according to user, computer, time, duration, or even a particular file

  21. Technical Specifications SysSPs (cont’d.) • Access control lists regulate who, what, when, where and how • Restricting what users can access, e.g. printers, files, communications, and applications • Administrators set user privileges • Read, write, create, modify, delete, compare, copy

  22. Technical Specifications SysSPs (cont’d.) • Configuration rules • Specific configuration codes entered into security systems • Rule policies are more specific to system operation than ACLs • May or may not deal with users directly

  23. Technical Specifications SysSPs (cont’d.) Many security systems require specific configuration scripts telling the systems what actions to perform on each set of information they process

  24. Technical Specifications SysSPs (cont’d.) • Often organizations create a single document combining elements of both management guidance and technical specifications SysSPs

  25. Technical Specifications SysSPs:Case Study Disaster at a University: A Case Study in Information Security • Overview • Issue • People Involved • Approach and Resolution • Outcomes • Conclusion

  26. Guidelines for Effective Policy • For policies to be effective, they must be properly: • Developed • Distributed or disseminated • Reviewed or read • Understood • Formally agreed to • Uniformly applied and enforced

  27. Developing Information Security Policy • It is often useful to view policy development as a two-part project • Design and develop the policy (or redesign and rewrite an outdated policy) • Establish management processes to perpetuate the policy within the organization

  28. Developing Information Security Policy (cont’d.) • Policy development projects should be • Well planned • Properly funded • Aggressively managed to ensure that it is completed on time and within budget • The policy development project can be guided by the SecSDLC process

  29. SecSDLC Process of Policy Development • Investigation phase • Obtain support from senior management • Clearly articulate the goals of the policy project • Acquire a capable project manager • Develop a detailed outline of and sound estimates for project cost and scheduling

  30. Developing Information Security Policy (cont’d.) • Analysis phase should produce • New or recent risk assessment or IT audit documenting the current information security needs of the organization • Key reference materials • Including any existing policies

  31. Developing Information Security Policy (cont’d.) • Design phase includes • How the policies will be distributed • How verification of the distribution will be accomplished

  32. Developing Information Security Policy (cont’d.) • Implementation phase includes • Writing the policies • Policy distribution • Maintenance Phase • Maintain and modify the policy as needed • Built-in reporting mechanism • Periodic review

  33. Automated Tools Figure 4-10 The VigilEnt policy center Source: Course Technology/Cengage Learning

  34. Alternative Approaches:The Information Securities Policy Made Easy Approach • Gathering key reference materials • Defining a framework for policies • Preparing a coverage matrix • Making critical systems design decisions • Structuring review, approval, and enforcement processes

  35. Alternative Approaches: Guide for Developing Security Plans for Federal Information Systems • NIST Special Publication 800-18, Rev. 1 reinforces a business process-centered approach to policy management • Policies are living documents • Good management practices for policy development and maintenance make for a more resilient organization

  36. Alternative Approaches: Guide for Developing Security Plans for Federal Information Systems • Policy requirements • An individual responsible for reviews • A schedule of reviews • A method for making recommendations for reviews • An indication of policy and revision date Management of Information Security, 3rd ed.

  37. A Final Note on Policy Lest you believe that the only reason to have policies is to avoid litigation, it is important to emphasize the preventative nature of policy.

  38. Next Class • Read Chapter 5 – Security Programs • Case Studies • In lieu of discussion, we will be covering the cases during lecture. Be prepared to discuss your assigned case and read the other cases • Assessment 1 • Topic Paper Presentation – Howard/Vince